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Amanyanga Akomeye Yatumye ‘Doing Business Report’ Ihagarikwa

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Banki y’Isi yatangaje ko yahagaritse raporo imenyerewe nka ‘Doing Business Report’ yasohokaga buri mwaka, igaragaza uko ibihugu birushanwa mu koroshya ubucuruzi. Ni icyemezo cyafashwe nyuma y’ibibazo byagaragaye mu gutanga amanota.

Bijyanye n’uburyo imitangire y’amanota yagiye ihindurwa mu nyungu z’ibihugu bimwe, nk’uko byagaragaye kuri raporo yo mu 2018 ku Bushinwa, no ku ya 2020 kuri Saudi Arabia, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu na Azerbaijan.

Banki y’Isi yatangaje ko nyuma yo kubona ibyavuye mu iperereza, “yafashe icyemezo cyo guhagarika gutangaza raporo ku koroshya ubucuruzi.”

Yakomeje iti “Mu gihe kiri imbere, tuzashaka uburyo bushya bwo gusesengura ibijyanye n’ubucuruzi n’ishoramari.”

Ibibazo byaje bite? 

Mu iperereza ryakozwe n’akanama kihariye, rigasesengurwa n’ikigo WilmerHale, hakusanyijwe inyandiko zigera muri miliyoni eshanu z’abakozi ba Banki y’Isi, hasesengurwa izisaga 80,000 cyane cyane izarimo amakuru y’ingenzi, hanabazwa abantu benshi barimo abakozi ba banki n’abahoze bayikoramo.

Ahantu honyine hatakuwe amakuru ngo ni muri telefoni ngendanwa z’abahoze ari abakozi, kubera ko iyo bahavuye itegeko ribasaba gusiba ibintu byose, telefoni zigatangira gukora bundi bushya.

Raporo izwi nka Doing Business 2018 igaragaza ibibazo, yatangajwe ku wa 31 Ukwakira 2017.

Mu iperereza byaje kugaragara ko yakozwe mu bihe bikomeye kuri Banki y’Isi n’ubuyobozi bwayo, kuko hari mu bukangurambaga bwo kugira ngo ibihugu biyongerere imari shingiro.

Icyo gihe hari impungenge ko umwe mu bafatanyabikorwa bakomeye ashobora kugabanya amafaranga yatangagamo, mu gihe ibindi bihugu nk’u Bushinwa byari bitaragaragaza umurongo bizafata.

Muri kiriya gihe Perezida wa Banki y’Isi yari Dr. Jim Yong Kim, umuyobozi mukuru wayo ari Dr. Kristalina Georgieva, ubu ni umuyobozi mukuru w’ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’Imari, IMF.

U Bushinwa ntibwari bwishimiye uko bwagaragazwaga muri raporo ku koroshya ubucuruzi, ku buryo guhera muri Gicurasi 2017 abayobozi bakuru babwo begereye Perezida Kim, bamumenyesha ko umwanya wa 78 baherukaga kubona udahura n’amavugurura yose bakoze mu koroshya ubucuruzi.

 

Abayobozi mu biro bya Perezida wa Banki y’Isi Jim yong Kim bashinjwa gushyira igitutu ku bakoraga raporo ya Doing Business

Icyo gihe ngo yabijeje ko uburyo raporo ikorwamo buzagumya kuvugururwa, ariko ko bagomba gukora amavugurura ashoboka bakabona umwanya mwiza hagendewe ku buryo bwakoreshwaga icyo gihe.

Icyo ngo ni nacyo gisubizo yahaga buri gihugu cyajuririraga umwanya cyabonye.

Mu mezi yasatiraga itangazwa rya raporo nshya, abayobozi bo mu Bushinwa barushijeho kuganiriza abayobozi ba banki ku mwanya u Bushinwa buzazaho.

Umwe mu bayobozi ngo yaje no kuvuga ko u Bushinwa nibuzamuka mu myanya buri wese aziruhutsa, undi avuga ko bizeye ko raporo itaha “izagaragaza neza u Bushinwa.”

Ubwo raporo nshya yendaga gutangazwa, muri Nzeri 2017, abateguraga raporo bamenyesheje abayobozi mu biro bya Perezida wa Banki y’Isi ko “ibipimo by’u Bushinwa bitameze neza, ariko bitazaba bibi nk’uko twabitekerezaga”.

Muri email zabonywe mu iperereza, umwe mu bakozi ngo yandikiye mugenzi we ati “ndumva ngiye kurira.”

Ku wa 16 Ukwakira, abateguraga raporo baje kwemeza raporo ya nyuma, u Bushinwa bwisanga ku mwanya wa 85.

Ubuyobozi bwayiteguraga bwahise busaba ko yoherezwa mu icapiro ngo isohorwe mu mpapuro, nyuma itangazwe.

Umwe mu bakozi mu biro bya perezida ngo yahise yandikira undi muyobozi mukuru amusaba kugenzura neza aho u Bushinwa buza gushohoka muri raporo, kuko ngo Perezida Kim ataza kwishima ibisobanuro nibiba bidafatika.

Icyo gihe yanamusabye kugenzura niba hari uburyo bwo “kugenzura ingaruka za politiki zizajyana nabyo.”

Umuyobozi w’ibiro bya Perezida wa Banki y’Isi yahise atumiza inama yagombaga kuganirirwamo ya raporo, iba ku wa 17 Ukwakira 2017.

Umwe mu bakozi bo mu biro bya perezida yabarijemo niba nta buryo bufatika bwakoreshwa bwo kuzamura umwanya u Bushinwa bwabonye.

Raporo y’iperereza ikomeza iti “Ubuyobozi bushinzwe gutegura raporo bwumvise ko ari icyifuzo giturutse kuri Perezida Kim ubwe. Iryo tsinda ryaganiriye ku guhindura uburyo bwakoreshejwe mu gukora raporo, hakarebwa ubwazamura umwanya w’u Bushinwa.”

Uburyo bwa mbere bwatekerejwe bwari uguhuza imibare y’u Bushinwa n’iy’ibice bugenzura nka Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao n’ibindi, mu gihe nabyo byasohokaga ku rutonde nk’ibihugu ukwabyo.

Haje no gutangwa amabwiriza ku bategura raporo ko babikora batyo, ko ari amabwiriza aturutse hejuru.

Abayobozi batari bishimiye uko u Bushinwa buhagaze muri raporo bakomeje kubaririza uko imibare iza kumera nihamara guhuzwa iya bya bice byose.

Gusa umwe mu bakoraga kuri raporo yaje kuvuga ko batakusanyije imibare ya Macao, bityo ko itavangwa muri raporo y’u Bushinwa.

Yavuze ko hagiyemo iya Hong Kong, u Bushinwa bwahita bwigira imbere muri raporo bukagera ku mwanya wa 70, umwanya uri imbere ugereranyije n’umwaka wabanje.

Byaje kwemezwa bityo, basaba ko raporo yoherezwa mu icapiro.

Iperereza ariko rigaragaza ko umwe mu bayobozi bo mu biro bya Perezida Kim yaje gusaba ko baba baretse, kuko hakiri ibiganiro birimo gukorwa, ku buryo raporo izasohoka abantu bose bamaze kuyumva kimwe.

Muri icyo gihe, Georgieva wari umuyobozi mukuru wa Banki y’Isi yinjiye muri gahunda zo kuzamura amanota y’u Bushinwa.

Kristalina Georgieva yari umuyobozi mukuru wa Banki y’Isi

Raporo ivuga ko ku wa 18 Ukwakira 2017 yakoranyije inama mu biro bye hamwe n’uwayoboraga Banki y’Isi mu Bushinwa, aza kuvugiramo ko mu mibare y’u Bushinwa batakongeramo iya Hong Kong “ku mpamvu za politiki, ko ahubwo hakenewe ikindi gisubizo.”

Haje kwemezwa ko uburyo buruta ubundi ari ukuvugurura imitangire y’amanota, hakitabwa ku manota ari hejuru yahawe imijyi ya Beijing na Shanghai.

Mu isesengura ariko baje gusanga guhindura uburyo bwakoreshejwe hakifashishwa imibare ya ya mijyi ibiri bitatanga umusaruro, kuko byanazamura imibare y’ibindi bihugu bityo urutonde ntiruhinduke.

Hemejwe ko imibare itangazwa uko yakabaye nta gihinduwe, ahubwo hakitabwa ku gusubanura uburyo u Bushinwa bwateye intambwe ku bintu byinshi, “ariko bidaturutse ku ikosa ryabwo, ibihugu byegeranye byakoze neza kurushaho muri uyu mwaka.”

Abayobozi bakomeje gushyashyana

Mu minota ya nyuma yo gutangaza raporo, ngo abayobozi bakomeje gushakisha ahantu hari imibare ishobora guhindurwa mu nyungu z’u Bushinwa, ntibigire ingaruka zikomeye kuri raporo yose.

Iryo tsinda ngo ryaje kubona ahantu hatatu hashobora kongerwa amanota: ibijyanye no gutangira ubucuruzi, guhabwa uburenganzira buteganywa n’amategeko no kubona inguzanyo, n’ibijyanye no kwishyura imisoro.

Raporo ikomeza iti “Ibyo byose byongereye hafi inota ku Bushinwa, bihita biganyaho imyanya irindwi maze bugera ku wa 78, umwanya icyo gihugu cyari gifite muri raporo yo koroshya ubucuruzi yo mu mwaka wa 2017.”

Ibyo bimaze kuba, ikindi gikomeye cyabaye ni uko Georgieva wari umuyobozi mukuru wa Banki y’Isi yasuye umuyobozi ushinzwe gutunganya raporo mu rugo rwe, ngo afate kopi yayo mu ntoki, irimo za mpinduka zose.

Raporo y’iperereza ivuga ko Georgieva yamubwiye ko uriya wari umwaka udasanzwe, amushimira uruhare rwe mu gukemura ikibazo kijyanye n’umwanya w’u Bushinwa muri raporo.

Iperereza rikomeza riti “Mu kiganiro, Georgieva wahoze ayobora Banki y’Isi yavuze ko bwari ubwa mbere ari nabwo aheruka gusura uyu mukozi mu rugo rwe.”

“Yanavuze ko adashobora kwibuka impamvu yumvise ari ngombwa gusura uriya mukozi mu rugo ku giti cye, aho gutegereza ngo raporo azayishyikirizwe mu biro mu masaha y’akazi.”

Iyo raporo yaje gutangazwa ku wa 31 Ukwakira 2017, u Bushinwa buza ku mwanya wa 78. Ni umwanya bwari ho mu 2017, mu gihe bwagombaga kujya ku wa 85.

Ibibazo bya Raporo yo mu 2020

Muri iyo raporo niho haza ibibazo bya Saudi Arabia na Leta zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu.

Muri Nzeri 2018, Guverinoma ya Saudi Arabia yavuze ko itishimiye umwanya yashyizweho muri raporo y’umwaka wa 2019, ibimenyesha Perezida wa Banki y’Isi.

By’umwihariko, yijujutiraga ko raporo itahaye agaciro amavugurura akomeye bakoze.

Muri Kanama 2019, itsinda ritegura iriya raporo ryakoze inyandiko y’ibanze igaragaza ibihugu byari byazamutse cyane ku rutonde rwa 2020, hariho Jordan nk’igihugu cyakoze amavugurura menshi, naho Saudi Arabia ikaza ku mwanya wa kabiri.

Mu kwezi kwakurikiye, umwe mu bayobozi muri Banki y’Isi witwa Simeon Djankov yaje kubaza niba hari uburyo amakuru yahindurwa, Jordan ikava ku mwanya wa mbere mu bazamutse cyane ku rutonde.

 

Simeon Djankov

Icyo gihe ngo yasobanuye ko Jordan yari mu bihe bikomeye by’ubukungu n’imibereho y’abaturage, bityo ko raporo itari kwizerwa n’abantu igihe Jordan yaba ije ku mwanya wa mbere mu bakoze iminduka nyinshi.

Mbere na mbere ngo yohereje muri Jordan itsinda ryakoraga kuri raporo ngo rirebe niba koko amavugurura avugwa yarakozwe.

Bamaze gusanga amakuru yatanzwe ari ukuri, bahise bashakisha uburyo bwo kuzamura amanota ya Saudi Arabia ngo ibashe guca kuri Jordan ku rutonde.

Icyo gihe ngo hari hasanzwe imikoranire yihariye ya Banki y’Isi na Saudi Arabia.

Djankov ngo yaje kuvuga ko ibyo ari ibikorwa byaturutse mu buyobozi bukuru, umwe akaba yari umuyobozi w’ibiro bya Perezida Kim, wanagize uruhare mu guhindura imibare y’u Bushinwa kuri raporo yo mu 2018.

Ku wa 30 Nzeri, itsinda ryakoraga kuri raporo ryahinduye imibare ya Saudi Arabia, ibasha guca kuri Jordan.

Kuzamura imibare ya Saudi Arabia mu buryo yahawe amanota byanagize impinduka ku manota ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu, kuko ibyo bihugu byombi bifite gahunda z’imisoro ziteye kimwe.

Yahise izamuka imyanya 30, igera ku wa 62 muri raporo yo mu 2020.

Impinduka zanakozwe ku buryo Azerbaijan yabariwemo amanota.

Raporo igaragaza ko abakozi benshi bagiye banga gusuzugura amabwiriza y’abakozi bo mu biro bya Perezida wa Banki y’Isi cyangwa umuyobozi mukuru wayo, batinya gutakaza imirimo yabo.

Nyuma y’itangazwa ry’iyo raporo, Georgieva yavuze ko atemera ibyayivuyemo, mu gihe akomeje gushyirwaho igitutu kubera uburyo yakoreye mu nyungu z’u Bushinwa.

Ni mu gihe Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika yatangaje ko yatangiye gusesengura ibyo “birego bikomeye” .

 

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