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Ese Koko Hari Abanya Ethiopia Bakomoka Muri Israel Cyangwa Ni Amakabyankuru?

Yanditswe kuwa

Mbere yo gusoma inyandiko y’Amateka, ujye ubanza urebe niba ufite umwanya n’imbaraga zo mu mutwe bihagije kuko burya ni maremare cyane. Ubwami bwitiriwe abo mu muryango wa Salomo bwategetse Ethiopia y’ubu nabwo bufite amateka maremare cyane.

Ni ubwami bwategetse Ethiopia guhera mu mwaka wa 1270 kugeza mu mwaka wa 1970 ni ukuvuga imyaka 700.

Hari inyandiko abanyamateka bafite isobanura iby’umwami bw’abakomoka kuri Salomo yitwa Kebra Negast. Amateka ayikubiyemo avuga ku bwami bw’ abana bakomoka ku mugore Solomo yarongoye witwa Sheeba bakaza gutegeka Ethiopia.

Ni amateka maremare kandi yasigaye mu muco w’Abanya Ethiopia benshi mu binyejana byinshi.

Kebra Negast ni iki?

Nta nyandiko yakwihandagaza ngo yemeze mu buryo budasubirwaho ko ibiyivugwamo ari Ukuri ntakuka k’umuntu cyangwa abantu banditse Kebra Negast.

Icyo abahanga bazi ni uko ibiyanditsemo byakusanyijwe kandi birangiza kwandikwa mu mwaka wa 1300 ni ukuvuga mu Kinyejana cya 14 Nyuma ya Yezu Kristu.

Izina Kebra Negast ryahimbwe biturutse ku bika bya mbere bigize igice cya mbere cya kiriya gitabo cyanditswe mu rurimi bita Ge’ez.

Ge’ez ni ururimi abanyamadini bo muri Ethiopia ya kiriya gihe bakoresheje bandika.

Ni nk’uko Ikilatini cyakoreshejwe muri Kiliziya gatulika y’Abaromani mu ntangiriro zayo.

Abanyamateka bemera ko hari ibindi bintu bataravumbura ku mateka akubiye muri ziriya nyandiko ariko byibura bemeranya ko ibizanditsemo bikwiye kwizerwa mu rugero runaka.

Ibintu bijya gutangira, byatangiye ubwo umwamikazi Sheba wayoboraga Ethiopia yajyaga gucyeza Umwami wa Israel witwaga Salomo.

Iby’aba banyacyubahiro bivugwa mu Isezerano rya Kera muri Bibiliya, mu bitabo by’Abami ba Mbere n’Ingoma za Kabiri.

Muri Kebra Negast, Sheba avugwa nk’umuntu waturutse mu bwami bwa Aksum muri Ethiopia.

Mu Ngoma za Kabiri igice cya 9:12 haranditse hati: ‘Nuko Umwami Salomo aha umwamikazi Sheba ibyo yari ararikiye byose’ .

Kebra Negast yo ivuga ko mu byo uriya mwamikazi yari ararikiye harimo no kubyarana na Salomo.

Kandi ngo ni ko byagenze kuko ubwo Umwamikazi Sheba yagarukaga iwabo, yaje atwite abyara umuhungu amwita Menelik.

Uyu  Menelik amaze gusoreka yagiye gusura Se Salomo i Yeruzalemu ndetse ahamara igihe yumva ubwenge bwa Se.

Hari paji za kiriya gitabo zivuga ko ubwo Menelik yatahukaga ‘yagarukanye n’Isanduku y’Isezerano.’

Iyi sanduku rero niyo yabaye ishingiro ry’idini rya Gikirisitu rya Ethiopia kuva icyo gihe.

Bemera ko iriya sanduku ikiri mu ngoro yitiriwe Mariya Umubyeyi wacu w’i Siyoni, iyo ngoro ikaba iri mu mujyi wa Axum.

Irera cyane k’uburyo aho iri nta wundi muntu ujya uhagera uretse abatambyi gusa.

Menelik yarabyaye, abana be basimburana ku butegetsi kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 13 Nyuma ya Yezu Kristu.

Igice cya 87 cya Kebra Negast kivuga ko nta wundi wigeze ategeka Ethiopia nk’uko byagenze kuri Menelik n’abamukomokaho.

Ubwami bwa Aksum ya cyera

 Aksum ni umurwa wabaye icyatwa kuva kera muri Ethiopia yo mu gihe rwagati.

Aho Aksum yari iherereye muri iki gihe niho wasanga ibihugu bya Ethiopia na Eritrea by’ubu.

Ubuhangange bwayo bwaragutse bugera no hakurya y’Inyanja Itukura mu Majyepfo ya Arabia.

Hari umugabo witwa Mani wigeze kwandika ko ubwami bwa Aksum bwagutse ku rwego rujya kungana n’ubwami bw’Abaperesi, Abashinwa n’Abaromani.

Abamisiyoneri bo muri Kiliziya gatulika bagerageje kwiyegereza abo muri Ethiopia ndetse bamwe barayiyoboka ariko abenshi banga gutandukira ngo bave ku byo bizeraga.

Ikintu kinini kiri muri ibi ni uko ubwami bwa Aksum bwaje kwihuza n’ubwo Sheba biraguka kandi iki nicyo cyatumye Abanya Ethiopia bo muri Aksum bagaragara muri Paji za Bibiliya

N’ubwo bwose ubwami bw’Aba Aksum bwaje guhirima, ariko ntibwigeze busibama mu mitwe y’abanyamateka no mu Bakirisitu bo muri Ethiopia yo mu kiriya gihe.

Hari inzu abihaye Imana bo mu idini ryo muri Aksum basengeragamo zigihagaze, urugero ni nk’iyitwa Debra Damo

Abyssinia

Hagati y’umwaka wa 900 n’umwaka wa 1137, muri kariya gace hadutse ubwami bw’Abakirisitu bise Zagwe.

Ni ubwami bwaje busimbura ubw’aba Aksum bwari bugeze mu marembera.

Hagati y’ihirima ry’Aksoum n’izamuka rya Zagwe, Islam yari itangiye kugira imbaraga mu Majyaruguru ashyira agace  k’Ihembe ry’Afurika.

Abasilamu bita  Sulutani( Sultans) bari benshi kandi amasomo yabo yaratangiye gucengera benshi.

Ni amasomo yagendanaga n’ubucuruzi Abisilamu bakoranaga n’ibice by’Aziya y’Amajyepfo n’Afurika y’Amajyaruguru ashyira Uburasirazuba.

Abaturage bo mu gace kitwa Damot batangiye gukorana n’abami bo muri Zagwe batangira gushinga Ubukirisitu, bitaga ko bwihariye ni ukuvuga ubudafite aho buhuriye n’ubw’i Roma.

Baje kubaka ingoro bise Lalibela.

Ni ingoro z’amasengesho zibukanye ubuhanga k’uburyo Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe ubumenyi, umuco na Siyansi( UNESCO) byazishyize ku nyubako zigize Umurage w’Isi.

Ni ingoro zicukuye mu rutare.

Cya gitabo Kebra Negast kivuga ko abami bakomoka ku ruhererekane rw’abo muri Lalibera ari bo bakomoka kuri Salomo bagize ibigwi kurusha abandi.

Umwe mu bakomeye ni uwitwa Yekuno Amlak (r. 1270-1285) uyu akaba yarivanye mu gukorana n’abo mu bwoko bw’aba Zagwe, ahitamo gukoresha imbaraga ze ngo ategeke Amajyepfo ya Ethiopia.

Yekuno Amlak yari uwo mu bwoko bw’ama Amhara n’aho aba Zagwe bo  ni abo mu bwoko bw’aba Agaw, aba bakaba bafite inkomoko kuba Cush nabo bafitanye isano runaka n’abanya Misiri n’aba Somali.

Bidatinze Yekuno n’abandi bami bo mu bwoko bwe baje kwigarurira igice cyose cy’Amajyepfo bahitamo kubana barebana ay’ingwe ariko batarwana mu buryo bweruye.

Inyandiko Kebra Negast ivugwaho kwerekana ko Yekuno Amlak yari umwami ukwiye kandi ushoboye.

Yabaye umwami ushoboye ndetse hari intiti yitwa Sara Marzagora ivuga ko yakoze byinshi k’uburyo hari abamukabirizaga bakamwitiranya n’Imana.

Abami bo muri Abyssinia bavuzweho nabo kuba bakomoka kuri Salomo ariko iyo usesenguye usanga ababyanditse muri Kebra Negast nta kindi bari bagamije uretse gushyira bariya bami mu muryango n’abandi bakomoka kuri Salomo bavugwa muri Bibiliya.

Ethiopia y’ubu

Nyuma y’imyaka 150 Yekuno Amlak apfuye, ingoma yamukurikiye nayo yarahirimye.

Bidatinze, Umusilamu witwa Ahmed ibn Ibrahim (r. 1527-1543) yaje kwitandukanya na Sulitani we, ahita yishingira ubwami bwe buto.

Yamushinjaga ko akorana cyane n’Abakirisitu.

Intambara yahise irota, asenya ibice byinshi bya Abyssinia, ahereye ku nzu z’abihaye Imana, inyubako za kidini n’ibindi.

Hari hagati y’umwaka wa 1529 n’umwaka wa 1543.

Muri icyo gihe nibwo abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’aba Oromo batangiye gukwira hirya no hino muri Ethiopia.

Hagati aho, hari intambara yubuye mu bice byayoborwaga n’aba Ottoman ndetse n’abo muri Espagne.

Buri gice cyashakaga kwigarurira ahaturiye Inyanja y’Abahinde kugira ngo kihagire icyambu  cyo kunyuzaho intwaro Ethiopia yari buzacyenere mu ntambara yari hagati y’abanya Abyssinia nawa Musilamu witwa Ahmed Gragn.

Uko iminsi yahitaga, niko ubutegetsi bw’abo muri Ethiopia ya kera bwacogoraga.

Ikindi ni uko abahoze biyita ko ari ubwoko bwo kwa Salomo ntibari bakibishimangiye kuko uko imyaka yahitaga indi igataha ni uko bashakanaga n’abo mu yandi moko bakabyarana.

Mu mpera z’Ikinyejana cya 19 nyuma ya Yezu Kristu haje umwami bise Tewodros II (r. 1855-68).

Yakoze uko ashoboye ngo ashyire Ethiopia ku murongo, ayiteze imbere ariko ahura n’imbogamizi zishingiye ku ngingo y’uko hari bumwe mu bwoko bw’abayituye bwaharaniraga ubutegetsi aho gushaka iterambere rihuriweho na bose.

Ubwo ni ko n’Abanyaburayi bashakaga kugira ijambo muri Ethiopia.

Yaje gusimburwa n’umuhungu we witwa Menelik II waje ari umurwanyi nawe yahanganye n’abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’aba Oromo bashakaga kwigenga, ntiyareka n’Abanyaburayi bifuzaga Ethiopia.

Menelik II yabayeho hagati y’umwaka wa  1889-1913.

Uyu mwami niwe wakubise inshuro abasirikare b’u Butaliyani bashakaga gufata Ethiopia, abatsindira ahitwa Adwa mu mwaka wa 1896.

Menelik II yaje gusimburwa na Haile Selassie (1892-1975), uyu akaba yaramamaje ku isi hose ingingo y’uko we n’abamubanjirije bose bakomoka ku mwami Salomo wa Israel ya cyera.

Uko bigaragara, kumva ko bakomoka muri Israel nibyo byatumye abami na Ethiopia bahorana inyota yo kumva ko n’abandi bagomba kubyemera batyo.

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