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Ese Koko Ibiri Mu Isanzure Byaryishyizemo Cyangwa Hari Umuhanga Wabikoze?

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Mu mboni z’abahanga bamwe na bamwe nka Stephen Hawking, ibiri mu isanzure byarigiyemo binyuze mucyo bise BIG BANG. Ngo ni iturika rihambaye ry’ingufu zatumye inyenyeri, imiyaga, imibumbe b’ibindi biri mu isanzure nk’uko rizwi ubu, bijya mu myanya birimo.

Ku rundi ruhande, hari abandi bahanga bavuga ko uko byaba bimeze kose, isanzure n’ibiyirimo byashyizweho mu buryo buri kuri gahunda idahinduka kandi bikorana neza k’uburyo hagomba kuba hari [umuntu] cyangwa izindi ngufu [zizi ubwenge] zabikoze.

Ntabwo Taarifa yagira uruhande ifata muri izi ariko ni ngombwa kureba uko ibintu biri mu isanzure bikorana, akamaro buri kintu gifitiye ikindi ndetse n’ako bifitiye umuntu by’umwihariko.

Kubisuzuma nibyo bigena uruhande umuntu yakumva ko rushyize mu gaciro muzo twavuzeho haruguru.

Mu kirere( mu isanzure, universe), hari inyenyeri ushatse wavuga ko zitabarika.

Zihari mu buryo butajagaraye ahubwo buri mu matsinda mato yitwa galaxies.

N’ubwo tuyise amatsinda mato, ariko ni manini kubera ko aba ari mo inyenyeri nini cyane kandi nyinshi.

Kuvuga ko inyenyeri ari nini ntabwo ari ukubeshya kubera ko izuba( ni imwe mu nyenyeri nto) ari inyenyeri nini uyigereranyije n’isi izuba ni rinini k’uburyo riyiruta inshuro 109.

Izuba ni imwe mu nyenyeri  ziri hagati ya Miliyari 200 na Miliyari 400 ziri muri galaxie bita La Voie lactée cyangwa Inzira Nyamata mu Kinyarwanda kigenekereje.

Kuba izuba ari rinini bituma rigira n’imbaraga nyinshi za rukuruzi zikurura isi n’indi mibumbe irigaragiye  igize icyo bita Système solaire.

Ubumenyi bw’abantu bo ha mbere cyane ni ukuvuga mu gihe mbanzirizamateka( Préhistoire) bwemezaga ko izuba rizenguruka isi, bikemezwa n’abahanga barimo ukomeye  cyane witwaga Aristote.

Aristote yakoreshaga ijisho agasobanura ibintu akurikije uko amaso ye yamuhaga ariko  Galilée we yakoresheje icyuma bita téléscope abona ibitandukanye nibya Aristote.

Aristote(384-322 Mbere ya Yezu Kristu)

Icyakora ntibyamuguye amahoro kubera ko Kiliziya Gatulika yari yaramaze kwemeza ko ‘koko’ izuba ari ryo rizenguruka isi nyamara atari byo.

Kuvuguza Kiliziya na Aristote rero ntibyari bumugwe amahoro.

Reka tugaruke k’ubuhanga bw’ibiri mu isanzure.

Ya matsinda y’inyenyeri twavugaga( galaxies) nayo ni menshi k’uburyo amaze kubarurwa kugeza ubu agera kuri miliyari 200.

Twibukiranye ko Miliyari burya ari Miliyoni 1000 zibariwe hamwe!

Buri tsinda muriyo  rifite ubuso bwaryo n’imikorere itandukanye n’irindi ahanini bitewe n’ingaruka imbaraga rukuruzi ziba mu kirere zirigiraho.

Hagati y’itsinda rimwe n’irindi bituranye harimo ibintu bintu biyahuza, bimwe bigakora n’imiyaga cyangwa imuri zituma habaho imikoranire hagati y’ayo matsinda.

Ibi byose biri mu kirere n’ibindi tutavuze bikorana neza nta na kimwe kibangamiye imikorere y’ikindi.

Bihuriye he n’imikorere y’ubwonko bw’umuntu?

Hari abahanga mu mikorere y’ubwonko bw’umuntu bagereranya  urusobe rw’inyenyeri n’izindi muri ziri mu kirere n’imikorere y’imyakura iba mu bwonko bw’umuntu.

Iyo myakura bayita neurons.

Uko ibintu biri ku murongo mu kirere bimeze neza neza nk’uko n’imyakura itondetse kandi ikorana mu bwonko bw’umuntu.

Imikorere n’imikoranire y’imyakura y’ubwonko bw’umuntu bayita ‘connectome’ mu mvugo ya gihanga.

Imyakura yo mu bwonko bw’umuntu ntabwo ijagaraye. Ibumbiye mu matsinda akorana neza, agahuzwa n’uduce bita axons, utu tugakora nk’intsinga zijyana amashanyarazi arimo amakuru avuye ku mwakura umwe ajya ku wundi.

Iri gereranya hagati y’imikorere y’ubwonko bw’umuntu n’imikorere y’imuri ziri mu isanzure si amagambo gusa.

Mu mwaka wa 2020 hari abahanga babiri babyanditseho.

Umwe ni Umutaliyani wize iby’ikirere n’imuri zikirimo witwa Franco Vazza na mugenzi we wize iby’imikorere y’ubwonko witwa Alberto Feletti.

Uwavuga ko abantu basobanukiwe n’uko ubwonko bwabo bukora kurusha gusobanukirwa n’ingano ndetse n’imikorere y’isanzure, ntiyaba yibeshye!

Aho isanzure ribera inshoberamahanga ni uko ryaguka buri munsi.

Uko ryari rizwi mu gihe cya Albert Einstein ntabwo ari ko rizwi muri iki gihe, haba mu ngano yaryo ndetse no mu birigize.

Isanzure riraguka ku muvuduko abahanga bataramenya uko bawita mu buryo budakuka.

Ibigize isanzure ni ukuvuga inyenyeri n’amatsinda yazo, imiyaga, n’amabuye n’ivumbi n’ibindi byose bihora byaguka kandi ni urugendo bamwe bavuga ko rwakozwe mu myaka miliyari nyinshi yashize.

Iyo myaka ntibazi neza igihe yatangiriye ndetse n’igihe izarangirira.

Ibyo  abahanga bapima muri iki gihe ndetse no mu gihe cyahise ni ibyo basanze biri ho ariko bitangira ntibari bahari kandi birashoboka cyane ko bazagenda bigasigara.

Umusizi w’Umunyamerikakazi ariko ukomoka muri Afurika witwaga Maya Angelou(1928-2014) yigeze kuvuga ko igihe ari ikintu cy’agaciro kuko umuntu agisanga, yarangiza akagisiga bityo ko igihe yari afite akiri ku isi cyari icy’agaciro kanini.

Maya Angelou

Ku byerekeye isano hagati y’ubwonko bw’umuntu n’isanzure, hari ahandi bitandukanira.

Kugira ngo ikintu kibereye mu isanzure kizagere aho cyoherejwe biratinda mu gihe mu bwonko ubutumwa bwohereje bwihuta kandi bukaza ari bwinshi.

Imyakura ifite ubushobozi bwo kohereza ubutumma buri hagati ya butanu na 55 mu isogonda.

80% yabwo ni ubutumwa bugera aho bwoherejwe mu gihe gito kuko haba ari hafi.

Impamvu y’ingenzi ituma haba hafi ni uko inzira zibugeza yo ziba ari nyinshi kandi zikorana bya hafi.

Ubutumwa bwo mu bwonko bufite ubushobozi bwo kugera aho bwoherejwe hareshya na metero 100 mu isogonda.

Ni umuvuduko muto ugereranyije n’uw’urumuri rw’izuba kubera ko rwo rugenda Kilometero  300,000  ku isogonda.

Twibukiranye ko ubwonko ari buto ugereranyije n’inyenyeri ndetse n’amatsinda yazo kandi bwo bibusaba igihe gito cyane ngo ubutumwa bwohereje bugere aho bugiye.

Ku bwonko bw’umuntu gutinza k’ubutumwa bwoherejwe ahantu runaka byagira ingaruka zirimo n’urupfu ku muntu cyangwa ku bantu benshi.

Ubumenyi  bw’abantu ku isanzure bubarirwa ku mashyi…

Mu bugenge hari byinshi bikomeje kuvumburwa. Iyo havumbuwe ikintu kimwe, hasigara hibazwa aho cyabaga icyo gihe cyose bari bamaze batarakivumbura.

Nyuma hakurikiraho kwibaza uko ikivumbuwe gikorana n’ibindi.

Nk’ubu abahanga bamaze iminsi bazi ariko ‘batazi neza’ impamvu mu bugenge imbaraga runaka( energy) zitajya zivaho burundu ahubwo zihinduka izindi.

Ni ibyo bita ‘locality’.

Mudasobwa za rutura zirekana ko n’inyenyeri iyo zishaje zitazima burundu ahubwo hari ‘ikindi kintu’ zihinduka cyo.

Ubu buhanga bwitwa ‘locality’ buri mu buzengereza abahanga mu bugenge kubera ko hari ibyo bataramenya bibukorerwamo.

Mu byuma byabo bireba kure cyane mu kirere, hari ubwo bibwira ko imbaraga runaka zo mu kirere zigarukira ahantu aha n’aha ariko bakazasanga aho bibwiraga ko ari ho bibera atari ho mu by’ukuri.

Hari ubwo basanga bibera kure cyane cyangwa se bibera hafi kandi batari babizi neza.

Ibyo babona bakanabifataho imyanzuro biba bishingiye ahanini ku byo ibyuma byabo bibereka, ariko iyo hashize igihe, basanga hari ibindi batari bazi bigatuma basubira kwandika ibindi bitabo.

Nk’uko Aristote yibwiraga ko izuba ari ryo rizenguruka isi ndetse akandika ibyo bise geocentrisme(geo-isi), ariko nyuma bikaza kugaragara ko yibeshyaga ahubwo hakandikwa ikitwa heliocentrisme( helio-izuba) ni n’ako muri iki gihe abahanga bahora bahindura ibyo bari baremeje.

Icyakora aho abahanga batandukanira n’abandi ni uko bazi neza ko ‘utazi ubwenge ashima ubwe.’

Barinda bapfa bakiri mu bitabo no mu nzu z’ubushakashatsi bashaka kumenya ibindi bishya.

Sabine Hossenfelder yanditse muri Time ko uko byagenda kose, uwiga aruta uwanga.

Kuri we, abantu bagomba gukomeza kwiga uko isi batuye iteye, imibumbe n’inyenyeri, inyanja , amashyamba, abantu bayituye, inyamaswa…ibintu byose bishoboka bigomba kwigwa.

Sabine Hossenfelder yanditse muri Time ko uko byagenda kose, uwiga aruta uwanga.

Birumvikana ko ntawe umenya byose ariko kuri we, buri wese yize ibyo ashoboye ku kigero cyo hejuru kandi akabyandika yaba atanze umusanzu ukomeye mu mikorere y’ubwonko bwa bagenzi be n’amajyambere y’abatuye isi muri rusange.

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