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Iby’Abashumba ‘Ba Business’ Bigiye Gusuzumanwa Ubwitonzi

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Léon Kayigi aha ikiganiro abari baje mu nama yateguwe na Transparency International Rwanda

Mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko hari amafaranga yashorwa mu Rwanda kandi yanduye, Urwego rw’igihugu rw’iterambere, RDB, rwashyizeho uburyo bwo kujya rushaka amakuru afatika ruzaheraho rwemerera umushoramari gushora imari mu Rwanda.

Bishingiye ku itegeko ryasohotse mu mwaka wa 2021 rigamije gukumira ko hari abantu bashobora guhitamo gushora mu Rwanda amafaranga babonye aturutse ahantu hakemangwa nko mu mitwe y’iterabwoba cyangwa mu bucukuzi n’ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro byakozwe mu buryo bishe amategeko abigenga.

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikrowa wa Transparency  International-Rwanda Appolinaire Mupiganyi yaraye abajije Umuyobozi w’Ishami rishinzwe kwandika imishinga( business) muri RDB witwa Léon Kayigi  niba hari ingamba RDB yashyizeho zikumira ko abitwa ‘abashumba’ bashobora gukoresha amafaranga yabonetse mu buryo bwa ruswa cyangwa iyezandonke(money laundering) kandi atari bo ba nyirimigabane kubatahura bikagorana.

Mu kumusubiza niho Kayigi  yatangarije ko mbere y’uko itegeko rigena uko hagomba gusuzumwa niba runaka ari we nyirimigabane koko, iyo migabane ikaba ari nawe yungukira( babita beneficial owners, BO mu mpine), ubwanditsi bw’imishinga mu kigo ahagarariye bwandikaga business hatitawe ku kindi icyo ari cyo cyose.

Ibi byakorwaga muri Politiki bita ‘easy of doing business ’.

Léon Kayigi ati: “…Nk’uko umuntu ashobora kugura n’undi umutungo, akawandika kuri mubyara we, yanga ko bigaragara ko ari uwe, ni nako ibigo by’ubucuruzi bishobora gukoreshwa, aho kugira ngo ugure hoteli, ahubwo ukagura imigabane muri BRALIRWA ariko wagura imigabane muri BRALIRWA ntuyigure nkawe, ahubwo ugaca mu wundi muntu…”

Yavuze ko ubusanzwe mu Rwanda bandikaga ibigo by’ubucuruzi( ibyo yise amasosiyete) ntibabazwe icyo kintu bita ‘beneficial ownership’.

Icyakora avuga ko iyi ngingo ubu yinjijwe mu mategeko y’u Rwanda bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 2021,  iyo ikaba ari yo mpamvu muri iki gihe(2022) ari bwo bigitangira gusuzumwa.

Kayigi avuga ko mu itegeko rigenga amasosiyete ryo mu mwaka wa 2021 harimo ingingo ivuga ko ‘umuntu wese uzajya wandikisha ikigo cy’ubucuruzi, uretse kwitwa ko ari umunyamigabane, hari n’urutonde rw’ibibazo azajya yuzuza rwemeza niba urwujuje ‘ari we munyamigabane koko.’

Ngo bizajya bigaragara neza ko ufite imigabane myinshi ari runaka, cyangwa se ko n’ubwo runaka ari we wanditse ko ari we nyiri ikigo, ariko ko ‘atari we’ nyirimigabane ahubwo nyiri imigabane ari ‘runaka wundi.’

Ibyerekeye kumenya niba ibyo uwujuje iyo nyandiko yatanzemo ibisubizo ari ukuri cyangwa ari ibinyoma, Léon Kayigi yavuze ko ibyo atari akazi ka RDB kuko akazi kabo kaba karangiye.

Ngo ibyo gusuzuma ukuri cyangwa ibinyoma bikubiye mu makuru yatanzwe n’uwashinze ikigo  ni akazi k’abagenzacyaha n’abashinjacyaha.

Ati: “ Nubeshya hari izindi nzego zibishinzwe zizakora akazi kazo, ariko ko twe ibitureba mbere na mbere ni ukwandika abo bantu.”

Yunzemo ko n’ubusanzwe, RDB nta makuru igira ibanga kuko umuntu wese ushaka kumenya imigabane runaka afite mu kigo runaka cy’ubucuruzi yemerewe kuyasaba RDB ikayamuha.

Ku byerekeye ya beneficial ownership,  Kayigi avuga ko mu gihe kiri imbere bazajya buzuza inyandiko irimo ingingo zavuzwe haruguru kandi ngo si umwihariko ku bigo bizaba ari bishya mu bucuruzi, ahubwo ngo igihe kizagera hasuzumwe n’ibisanzwe bikora.

Aya makuru arebana n’iyi ngingo ngo ntazajya ahabwa uwo ari we wese kereka ubiherwa uburenganzira n’itegeko rigena inshingano ze.

Ati: “ Ushobora kubona ko runaka afite business yiyandikishijeho ko ifite agaciro ka Miliyoni Frw 500 kandi uzi neza ko nta kintu atunze,  icyo gihe ntabwo waza iwacu ngo tuyaguhe ahubwo wajya kubibwira RIB ikaba ari yo iyadusaba…”

Léon Kayigi ariko avuga ko mu mategeko kuba umuntu yakwandikisha umutungo we ku wundi muntu, ubwabyo atari icyaha.

N’ubwo yemera ko hari benshi babiterwa no guhisha ibyaha, ariko hari n’abandi babikora mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko, bakabiterwa gusa no kwanga ko rubanda rwose rumenya ko ari bo ba nyiri ibi n’ibi.

Ibyo kumenya niba runaka yarabikoze abitewe no guhishira icyaha byo bimenywa n’Urwego rushinzwe gutahura no kugenza ibyaha kandi urwo ni RIB n’izindi nzego bakorana urugero  nka Financial Intelligence Center.

Ismael ukora mu rwego rw’igihugu rw’ubushinjacyaha ushinzwe ibyaha by’ubukungu yabwiye abari aho ko akenshi iyo abantu bashoye amafaranga baba bafite aho bayavanye kandi bashaka no kuzunguka andi.

Avuga ko iyo bigaragaye ko runaka hari aho adasobanura neza ko yakuye amafaranga, akurikiranwa nyuma bikazagaragara ko hari undi umukuriye kandi ufite aho yakuye ayo mafaranga.

Akenshi ngo umuntu wa  nyuma ubajijwe usanga atabasha kumenya aho uwa mbere yakuye amafaranga.

Aho niho abashinjacyaha bahera babona icyuho mu mikoreshereze y’ayo mafaranga.

Iyo uvugwaho kurigisa amafaranga cyangwa gukoresha amafaranga yavuye mu cyaha yayambukanye imipaka akayajyana hanze y’u Rwanda,  habaho kuganira n’icyo gihugu  u Rwanda rugatanga ubusabe.

Icyakora ngo ni ubusabe si itegeko.

Bivuze ko hari ubwo igihugu kigira ubushake bucye mu mikoranire n’ikindi kugira ngo ukekwaho icyo cyaha akurikiranwe, bigakunda kubaho cyane cyane iyo uwo muntu yageze muri icyo gihugu akagishoramo imari ifatika.

Birashoboka ko ari nako byagenze kuri Protais Mpiranyi n’abandi bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bataba mu Rwanda!

Uko bimeze kose ariko, ngo u Rwanda rukora k’uburyo rwirinda ko hari amafaranga yarucuruzwamo kandi yaravuye mu ntoki zanduye.

Ese bizorohera umunyamakuru gucukumbura icyaha kijyanye na beneficial ownership?

Itangazamakuru ricukumbura rigira akazi kenshi k’inzitane

Taarifa yabajije Léon Kayigi niba mu bo bita ‘abashumba’ haba hari abo bazi muri RDB asubiza ko ntabo bazi.

Avuga ko mu bo banditse nta muntu banditse witwa ‘umushumba’,  ko itangazamakuru ari ryo ribazi.

Kayigi yavuze ko icyo RDB yakoze ari ukorohereza abantu gukora business  ndetse bakaba banabikora binyuze mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga.

Kwiyandikisha bikorerwa hirya no hino ku isi kandi bigakorwa k’uburyo utamenya niba uwiyandikishije kuri business runaka ari nyirayo cyangwa ari iy’undi.

Yunzemo ati: “ Ntabwo twari dukeneye kumenya niba Peter ari nyiri umutungo. Kuko icyo gihe  bitari itegeko, ntabwo byari n’inshingano zacu.”

Ku ngingo yo kumenya niba umunyamakuru azahabwa amakuru ashaka ku nkuru ivugwamo ikigo cy’umuntu runaka uri mu kibazo cya ruswa cyangwa iyezandonke, Léon Kayigi yasubije ko bizaterwa n’impamvu umunyamakuru azatanga zituma akenera ayo makuru.

Ubusanzwe avuga ko hari amategeko agena abahabwa amakuru ku ngingo yavuze haruguru.

Ayo mategeko ngo ntamuha uburenganzira bwo gutanga  uko abonye amakuru abitse.

Mu itegeko ry’ibigo by’ubucuruzi, niho hateganywa uko ba beneficial owners bandikwa, hakaba itegeko  rigena n’abo ayo makuru ahabwa, igihe n’uburyo bayabwamo , hakaba n’itegeko rigena amakuru agomba gutangwa n’adatangwa, iryo Kayigi yise irya Data protection Law.

Uyu muyobozi muri RDB avuga ko ubwo itegeko ryo kureba ibya beneficial ownership rizaba ryatangiye gushyira mu bikorwa uko ryakabaye, bizasaba umunyamakuru ushaka gucukumbura inkuru runaka ku ngingo  irebana n’icyo kintu ko yerekana ishingiro ry’inyungu rusange ziri muri iryo cukumbura ari gukora.

Kayigi ati: “ Tuzaha abanyamakuru amakuru kuri iyo ngingo igihe bazaba batweretse ko ibyo bintu bashaka biri kuko mu nyungu rusange.”

Ngo bazajya mu isesengura rirebana n’ishingiro ry;ibyo umunyamakuru asaba, harebwe  niba koko  ibikubiye muri iyo nkuru azaba ari gutegura bizaba biri mu nyungu rusange.

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