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Inkomoko y’Ibibazo Byabyaye Intambara Hagati Ya TPLF Na Minisitiri w’Intebe Abiy Ahmed

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Intambara muri Ethiopia ikomeje gufata indi ntera, Minisitiri w’Intebe Abiy Ahmed ubu ni we uyoboye urugamba Ingabo za Leta zihanganyemo n’umutwe wa gisirikare ushamikiye ku ishyaka TPLF, Tigray People’s Liberation Front.

Guverinoma ivuga ko ikomeje kwisubiza uduce twinshi twari twafashwe n’uyu mutwe yita uw’iterabwoba. Uduheruka ni Bati, Gerba, Kersa, Degan, Dessie na Kombolcha nk’uko byemejwe kuri uyu wa Mbere.

Ari ko se ni gute byageze aha?

Imvano y’ikibazo ishingiye ku mitegekere yaranze Ethiopia mu myaka ishize n’imiterere y’inzego za Leta.

Ethiopia igira Guverinoma iyobora igihugu cyose (federal government), ariko buri bwoko bunini bukagira indi guverinoma mu duce 10 tw’igihugu.

Ethiopia yamaze imyaka 27 iyoborwa na TPLF guhera ubwo yafata ubutegetsi ihiritse Mengistu Haile Mariam mu 1991. Yaje kuba igihugu cyubashywe, gikize, gitekanye, ariko ibibazo by’isumbanya ry’amoko biza kugenda bifata indi ntera, hakiyongeraho ibibazo bya politiki, ruswa n’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Inyandiko nyinshi zigaragaza ko nubwo igihugu cyari kiyobowe n’ihuriro Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) ryari rifite ubwiganze mu Nteko ishinga amategeko, imyanya ikomeye yari ifitwe n’abantu bo muri Tigray, ari naho ishyaka TPLF rikomoka.

Nyamara kariya gace kagize 6% gusa by’abaturage basaga miliyoni 110 batuye Ethiopia, mu gihe nk’amoko ya Oromo na Amhara agize 60 ku ijana.

Ibintu byatangiye guhinduka

Ibintu byakaze guhera mu 2015 ubwo abaturage benshi bigaragambyaga basaba ko haba amavugurura mu mitegekere y’igihugu, mu bukungu, no guca ruswa yari imaze kumunga inzego za Leta.

Imyigaragabyo ahanini yatangiriye mu duce tubiri tunini kurusha utundi, Oromia na Amhara.

Igihugu cyashyizwe mu bihe bidasanzwe mu mezi icumi, imfungwa za politiki zirarekurwa ariko imyigaragambyo aho guhagarara, igakara.

Ku wa 15 Gashyantare 2018 Minisitiri w’Intebe Hailemariam Desalegn yareguye, avuga ko ashaka ko hajyaho uburyo bwashyira iherezo ku myigaragambyo yari imaze kugwamo benshi.

Ati “Ukwegura kwanjye ngufashe nk’ikintu gikomeye gikenewe kugira ngo habashe gukorwa amavugurura azatuma haboneka amahoro arambye na demokarasi.”

Hailemariam Desalegn

Icyo gihe byasaga n’aho ihuriro EPRDF ryari rigizwe n’amashyaka ane rinaniwe, by’umwihariko TPLF yari iriyoboye. Byahaye imbaraga nyinshi Oromo People’s Democratic Organisation yagwaga mu ntege TPLF.

Andi mashyaka byari kumwe mu ihuriro ni Amhara Democratic Party (ADP) na Southern Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement (SEPDM).

Nk’ihuriro ryari rifite abadepite benshi mu nteko, EPRDF yagombaga gushaka undi mukandida mushya. Nibwo hatanzwe izina rya Abiy Ahmed wo muri Oromo.

Yari afite akazi katoroshye. Ni we wa mbere wo mu bwoko bwa Oromo wari ugiye kuba Minisitiri w’Intebe kuva mu 1991.

Abiy yafatwaga nk’isura nshya mu butegetsi ku buryo ashobora kuzana impinduka, akanashimirwa ko ari umwe mu bashinze Urwego rw’Iperereza n’Umutekano w’igihugu (National Intelligence and Security Service, NISS).

Yanabaye umusirikare mukuru kugeza mu 2010, kuko yavuyemo afite ipeti rya Lieutenant Colonel.

Icyo gihe inzego zose aho ziva zikagera zari zuzuyemo abo muri Tigray bashyizweho na TPLF, ku buryo kugira ngo afate ibyemezo badashaka byari bigoye. Nyamara yari yitezweho amavugurura.

Mu minsi ye ya mbere yanenzwe bikomeye ko nta kintu arimo gukora, ariko ubwo ingorane ze zari zitarajya ahabona.

Imwe mu ntambwe za mbere yateye kwari ugusesa ihuriro EPRDF mu Ukuboza 2019, ashaka ko barema ishyaka rishya ririmo n’andi mashyaka ataravugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi.

Amashyaka atatu yemeye gukomeza kwihuza barema Prosperity Party, TPLF irigumura yanga kubiyungaho.

Ihangana ryafashe indi ntera

Kugira ngo akore amavugurura bikunde, Abiy yagombaga kubanza kwigizayo abayoboke bamwe ba TPLF kuko bitambikaga ibyemezo yafataga.

Yarabitangiye, umuyobozi ukuweho agahita azinga utwe akava Addis Ababa, akajya ku ivuko muri Tigray.

Byahise bihindura iyo ntara agace kagumutse, ku buryo ibyemezo bye nta mwanya byashoboraga kugirayo kandi akuriye guverinoma y’igihugu cyose.

Muri Nzeri 2020, Minisitiri w’Intebe Abiy yatanze amabwiriza ko kubera icyorezo cya COVID-19 mu gihugu, amatora yateganywaga muri za Leta asubikwa.

Tigray yabirenzeho ikoresha amatora, TPLF yegukana intsinzi ndetse itangaza ko guverinoma y’igihugu nivogera ibyemezo byabo izaba ibatangijeho intambara mu buryo bweruye.

Muri icyo gihe kubera icyorezo, hemejwe ko manda ya Minisitiri w’Intebe Abiy iba yongerewe kubera ko amatora mashya atashoboraga kuba, TPLF itangira kumufata nk’umuyobozi uriho utemewe n’amategeko.

Mu bisa no kwihimura, Inteko ishinga amategeko y’igihugu yagabanyije ingengo y’imari yagenerwaga Tigray.

Umwuka mubi wariyongereye, bigera aho TPLF igaba igitero ku birindiro by’ingabo za Leta mu majyaruguru, bivugwa ko ishaka kwiba intwaro nyuma y’uko Leta yari itangiye kwegereza ingabo z’igihugu hafi ya Tigray.

Minisitiri w’Intebe Abiy yaje gutangiza ibitero bigamije guca intege TPLF, atekereza ko bizamara iminsi mike none intambara imaze umwaka.

TPLF ifite ingufu zingana iki?

Mu miterere ya Ethiopia, nubwo hariho ingabo za Ethiopia nk’igihugu (Ethiopian National Defense Force, ENDF), usanga na Leta y’agace runaka ifite ingabo zayo iha amabwiriza.

Mu kiganiro yahaye abagize inteko ishinga amategeko mu Ugushyingo 2020, Abiy agaruka ku buryo ubwo bari mu rugendo rwo gutora Minisitiri w’Intebe, abagize TPLF batangiye kumugenda runono bamaze kubona ko ashobora gutorwa.

Na nyuma yo gutorwa ngo baramugenzuraga cyane, ku buryo atanagiraga imfunguzo, agafungurirwa inzu ye n’ibiro n’abashinzwe umutekano atazi uwabahisemo.

Ati “Ntabwo byagarukiye aho, nahoze ndi umusirikare bityo natangiye gutekereza niba hari uburyo nshobora gutoroka bibaye ngombwa, ntangira kureba ibice bikikije inyubako mbamo. Mbaza niba byashoboka, bambwira ko atari ibintu bisanzwe kuri Minisitiri w’Intebe, bambwira ko njya mu biro no mu rugo, ko inzu yanjye ari mo imbere, atari ibiri iruhande.”

Yarahatirije biza kwemerwa, asanga ngo inzu ye idafite izindi nzu zifatika byegeranye, ahubwo ngo twari utuzu duko turimo abantu utamenya icyo bakora n’ibindi bintu biri aho.

Muri make ngo Minisitiri w’Intebe yari agotewe ahantu hamwe, “nk’imfungwa ishobora gusa kugaragara mu ruhame mu itangazamakuru” nk’uko yabivuze.

Icyo gihe ngo yanahabwaga amabwiriza ko hari ahantu atemerewe kujya kubera umutekano we, mu gihe ngo “ubutasi bufite inshingano zo kumpa amakuru amfasha gufata ibyemezo, aho kumfatira ibyemezo.”

Yabonaga ko iyo mikorere itatuma agira icyo ageraho, bityo agomba guhindura abakuru b’ingabo n’inzego z’umutekano.

Umugaba w’Ingabo Gen Samora Yenus yashyizwe mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru asimbuzwa Gen Seare Mekonen wari umwungirije, naho Getachew Assafa wayoboraga NISS avanwaho asimbuzwa Gen Adem Mohamed.

Bijyanye n’umwuka mubi wari mu gihugu, Gen Mekonnen yaje kwicirwa mu mu murwa mukuru Addis Ababa, arashwe n’abamurindaga.

Abiy ati “Bamwe mu bayobozi b’inzego z’umutekano bavanyweho bibye intwaro nyinshi bahungira Mekelle.” Uwo ni umurwa mukuru wa Tigray.

Icyo gihe ngo ntanubwo ingano y’intwaro batwaye yamenyekanye, kubera ko inzego zose ari bo bazigenzuraga.

Abiy ati “Nta nzego z’umutekano zari zihari, wari umuryango wishyize hamwe ukora ibintu uko ubyumva, ni ibintu byagombaga gusenywa.”

Ni bande bari bakomeye?

Abiy avuga ko kugira ngo akore amavugurura byasabaga kumenya neza uko imyanya yose iteye n’abayirimo.

Ati “Mu gisirikare, ba jenerali b’inyenyeri enye baturuka muri Tigray bari 60% mu gihe ibindi bice bisigaye by’igihugu byagabanaga 40%, abo ni ba jenerali b’inyenyeri enye. Munsi gato, ba Lieutenant General ho umubare ni muto, 50% bari abo muri Tigray. Munsi gato nanone muri ba Major General, 45% ni abo muri Tigray.”

“Muri ba Brigadier General 40% ni ab’ahantu hamwe, ba Colonel 58% ni abo mu gace kamwe, ba Lieutenant-Colonel ni 66% bava mu gace kamwe, munsi gato (Major) ni 53 %. Ibi bisobanuye iki? Kugira ngo ubashe kuringaniza iyo mibare no mu myaka icumi ntabwo bishoboka.”

Ibyo ubwabyo byerekanaga ko guhangana na TPLF bidashoboka, aho nibura mu buyobozi bwo hejuru mu gisirikare kuva kuri General kugera kuri Captain, Tigray yari yihariyemo 55%.

Abiy yakomeje ati “Ibyo kandi icyo bivuze, nibo bashinzwe ibyo kugura ibikoresho, amahugurwa, itumanaho, ibintu byose bigenzurwa n’abantu baturuka mu gace kamwe.”

Ni abo bahinyuzaga ibyemezo bye, kandi kubigizayo bose ukabakira byari bigoye.

Mu mavugurura ngo abayobozi bakuru mu ngabo bo muri Tigray bavanywe kuri 55% bagera kuri 25%.

Mu buyobozi bw’imitwe y’ingabo kubera ko hari hagikenewe ubunararibonye, ngo abakomoka muri Tigray bari 100% hasigayemo 50%, mu gihe abayobozi bato bato mu ngabo bo muri Tigray bavuye kuri 80% bagera kuri 40%.

Benshi mu basirikare bakuwe mu myanya y’icyubahiro bararakaye, bisubirira iwabo muri Tigray.

Abiy yemera ko kubasimbuza bose byagombaga kuba ikibazo, kuko nubwo umwanya nka General ari uw’icyubahiro ku buryo Colonel yawugeraho mu mezi atandatu cyangwa umwaka, Captain ntiyapfa guhita agerayo.

Icyo gihe byumvikanishaga ko gushyiraho abasirikare bashoboye kandi bafite amapeti abahesha ijambo rijyanye n’imyanya bafite, byasabaga kwihangana no gutegereza.

Abiy yakomeje ati “Ubwo twakoraga amavugurura, abasirikare batangiye kuva hano, bari bafite inzu hano mu mujyi, ariko nyuma yo gushyirwa mu kiruhiko batangiye kwegeranya ingabo zabo. Turavuga ngo nituvanaho abayobozi bo mo hagati, bazagenda bajye hariya bubake igisirikare cyabo baduteze ikibazo, turavuga ngo bizaduca intege ahubwo bikomeze urundi ruhande.”

Muri icyo gihe ngo havanywemo bake, habaho gutoza abasirikare bihariye, kuvugurura ingabo zirwanira mu kirere, kugura za drones, n’ibindi. Ariko ntibyabujije ibibazo kuba.

Byashyize ku nkeke abasirikare bakomoka muri Tigray, benshi bagenda bigira iwabo.

Ibyo bigatuma mu ntambara Abiy arimo kurwana, mu gihe yita TPLF umutwe w’iterabwoba wo umushinja ibyaha bishingiye ku bwoko.

Ibyo byumvikanisha ko Abiy Ahmed ahanganye n’abasirikare bakomeye kimwe n’abahoze ari abanyapolitiki, bahoze ku ruhande rwa guverinoma yagutse ubu barimo kurwanira noneho agace kamwe ka Tigray, gahanganye n’ingabo z’igihugu cyose. Bafite n’ibikoresho bakeneye mu ntambara.

Bijyanye n’uburyo ari abantu bayoboye igihugu mu gihe kirekire, birashoboka ko bubatse ubucuti n’ibihugu by’amahanga bishobora guca inyuma bikabatera inkunga mu buryo buziguye.

Gen Tsadkan Gebretensae w’imyaka 68 ni we uyoboye urugamba ku ruhande rw’Ingabo zaTigray. Uyu afatwa nk’umwe mu barwanyi bakomeye Ethiopia yagize.

Yabaye umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za Ethiopia (ENDF), aza kwirukanwa na Minisitiri w’Intebe Meles Zenawi.