Mu Mibare : Umugore Mu Rwanda Ahagaze Ate ? - Taarifa
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Mu Mibare : Umugore Mu Rwanda Ahagaze Ate ?

Yanditswe kuwa

Mu bihe bitandukanye, u Rwanda rwakomeje kuza ku isonga mu guteza imbere umugabo n’umugore haba mu mategeko abaha uburenganzira bungana, ndetse kenshi abagore bagahabwa uburyo bwihariye bugamije kubatinyura.

Ni ibikorwa byose bihabwa umurongo n’Itegeko Nshinga, riteganya ko “abagore bagira nibura 30% by’imyanya mu nzego zifatirwamo ibyemezo”.

Byunganirwa n’amategeko arimo iriteganya uburenganzira bungana ku mutungo w’ubutaka no mu ikoreshwa ryabwo, n’irigena amahirwe angana mu kubona akazi n’uburenganzira ku mushahara, rikabuza n’Ihohoterwa Rishingiye ku Gitsina mu kazi.

Hari kandi itegeko rigena uburenganizra bungana ku bahungu n’abakobwa mu izungura, rikanagenera umwe mu bashakanye uburenganzira bwo kuzungura mu gihe uwo bashakanye yitabye Imana, bitandukanye n’uko byahoze.

Ntitwabura no kuvuga itegeko rishyiraho ndetse rikanagena ibigenerwa umugore uri mu kiruhuko cyo kubyara, rinashimangira umutekano w’akazi ku mugore uri mu kiruhuko cyo kubyara kigera ku mezi atatu.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwifatanya n’Isi mu kwizihiza Umunsi mpuzamahanga w’umugore kuri uyu wa 8 Werurwe, hari imwe mu mibare igaragaza intambwe zimaze guterwa.

Umugore mu buyobozi

Duhereye nko mu bagize Guverinoma, imibare igaragaza ko mu ba Minisitiri 20 n’abanyamabanga ba Leta 10, abagore ari 55% mu gihe abagabo ari 45%.

Iyo ugeze mu bagize Inteko ishinga amategeko, u Rwanda ruza ku mwanya wa mbere ku isi mu kugira abagore benshi, kuko mu mutwe w’Abadepite ari 61.3%, abagabo bakaba 38.7 %.

Iyi mibare ariko irahinduka iyo ugeze muri Sena, kuko abagore ari 38.5%, abagabo bakiharira 61.5%.

Iyo umanutse ukagera muri ba Guverineri b’Intara n’Umuyobozi w’Umujyi wa Kigali, abagore ni babiri (40%) ku bagabo batatu (60%).

Munsi nanone mu bayobozi b’uturere, ba Meya b’abagore mu Turere 27 dufite ubuzima gatozi ni 8 gusa, bangana na 29.6%, bivuze ko abagabo ari 70.4%.

Iyo ugeze mu bayobozi bungirije bashinzwe Iterambere ry’Ubukungu, abagore ni 4 (14.8%), abagabo bakaba 85.2%.

Bisa n’aho abagore bahariwe ku bwinshi umwanya w’umuyobozi wungirije ushinzwe Imibereho myiza y’abaturage, kuko ari 21 (77.8%), naho abagabo ni 6 (22.2%).

Umanutse ukagera hasi mu midugugu 14,837 igize u Rwanda, mu bagize Komite nyobozi uko ari 70,305 harimo abagore 27,997 (39.8%) n’abagabo 42,308 (60.2%).

Umugore mu yindi mirimo

Uretse mu buyobozi, umugore mu Rwanda amaze gutera intambwe nko mu nzego z’umutekano, aho mu mwaka wa 2020 Polisi yatangaje ko umubare w’abapolisikazi wiyongera, ku buryo wari ugeze kuri 21% by’abapolisi bose.

Abapolisikazi bagira uruhare mu gucunga umutekano

Uretse muri Polisi, mu Ngabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) naho abagore bamaze kugaragaza ko bafite ubushobozi bwo kuzuza inshingano, haba imbere mu gihugu ndetse no mu butumwa bw’amahoro boherezwamo hirya no hino ku isi.

Umusirikare wa RDF mu myitozo

Raporo iheruka yakozwe na World Economic Forum ku cyuho mu buringanire (2021 Global Gender Gap Report), yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa 7 ku isi mu bihugu 156 byahawe amanota meza.

Igaragaza ko rwabashije kuziba icyuho mu buringanire ku rwego rwa 80.5%, ruba urwa kabiri muri Afurika, inyuma ya Namibia iza ku mwanya wa gatandatu ku isi n’iya mbere kuri uyu mugabane.

Mu buyobozi abagore bahagarariwe neza, ariko mu zindi mfuruka z’ubuzima ni henshi hakenewe ko umugore yongererwa ubushobozi.

Raporo yatangajwe n’Ikigo gishinzwe ibarurishamibare mu Rwanda (NISR) ku bijyanye n’umurimo ku wa 3 Ukuboza 2021, igaragaza ko muri Kanama 2021, ubushomeri mu gihugu bwari kuri 19.4 ku ijana buvuye kuri 23.5 ku ijana muri Gicurasi 2021.

Bwari hejuru mu bagore (22.2 %) kurusha abagabo (17.2 %). Ibyo bigaterwa n’imiterere y’ubukugu n’amahirwe butanga.

Urwego rw’ubuhinzi nirwo rwaje imbere mu gutanga akazi kagera kuri 64.8% , haba mu buhinzi bugamije amasoko (43.7%) cyangwa ubutanga amafunguro y’umuryango gusa (56.3%).

Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko abagore biganje mu buhinzi cyane (74.5%) kurusha mu yindi mirimo ibyara inyungu, ariko ugasanga abari mu buhinzi bugamije amasoko ni bake (38.9%) ugereranyije n’abagabo (50.3%).

Ahubwo umubare munini w’abagore wibera mu buhinzi butanga amafunguro y’ako kanya (61.1%), ugereranyije n’abagabo (49.7%).

Mu bijyanye n’indi mirimo ibyara inyungu, ibarura ryiswe Rwanda Establishment Census 2020 ryerekanye ko mu bakozi bose mu gihugu, 60.9 ku ijana ari abagabo, utitaye ku kuba hari inzego zimwe ziganjemo abagore.

Ibikorwa byinshi by’ubucuruzi ni iby’abagabo

Ni mu gihe nka raporo igaragaza uko abantu bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari ikorwa buri myaka ine (FinScope Rwanda Survey), iyasohotse mu 2020 igaragaza ko nibura 93% by’Abanyarwanda, ni ukuvuga nibura miliyoni zisaga 7, bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari.

Nyamara abagore batagerwaho na serivisi z’imari ari 8% mu gihe abagabo ari 7%.

Urebye abakoresha serivisi z’imari zitangwa n’ibigo (formally served), abagore ni 74%, hakabamo ikinyuranyo cya 7% ugereranyije n’abagabo.

Mu bijyanye no gukorana na banki, raporo yerekanye ko 36% by’Abanyarwanda bangana na miliyoni 2.6 ari bo babona serivisi za banki.

Muri bo abagore ni 34%, n’aho abagabo ni 39%.

Wareba noneho muri serivisi z’imari ziciriritse zinabarirwamo ibimina (informally served), zikoreshwa n’Abanyarwanda bangana na 78%, ni ukuvuga nibura miliyoni 5.6.

Finscope 2020 igaragaza ko nibura 80% by’abagore baba mu matsinda yo kwizigamira cyangwa bagakoresha bene ubwo buryo ‘buciriritse’ mu kubona serivisi z’imari.

N’iyo bigeze kuri serivisi za Mobile money, imibare yagaragaje ko mu bantu miliyoni 6.2 bari batunze telefoni igendanwa, abagore ari 84% ugereranyije n’abagabo 90%.

Ni mu gihe abafite konti za mobile money, abagabo bari 68% ku bagore 56%.

Ni imibare nubwo iri hejuru urebye aho yavuye mu myaka mike ishize, igaragaza ko hakiri akazi kagomba gushyirwamo imbaraga.

Urumuri rwageze mu mahanga

Ibimenyetso bikomeje ariko kugaragaza ko umuhati washyizwe mu gushishikariza umugore kwitinyuka ugenda wera imbuto.

Rumwe mu ngero za hafi ni uko muri Mutarama 2022, Umunyarwandakazi Salma Rhadia Mukansanga yasifuye umukino wa mbere mu mateka y’igikombe cya Afurika cy’abagabo, aba umugore wa mbere ubashije kuyobora bene iyi mikino.

Ni na we musifuzi wa mbere wo hagati w’ Umunyarwandakazi wasifuye mu gikombe cy’isi cy’abagore mu 2019.

Uretse mu mikino, muri politiki naho abagore b’Abanyarwndakazi bahagaze neza.

Magingo aya Louise Mushikiwabo ayoboye Umuryango w’Ibihugu bikoresha Igifaransa (OIF) nk’Umunyamabanga mukuru.

Ni umuryango ukomeye kuko uhuza ibihugu 54 binyamuryango, 7 bifatanya nawo na 27 by’indorerezi.

Louise Mushikiwabo

Mu minsi mike ishize kandi Umunyarwandakazi Valentine Rugwabiza yagizwe Intumwa yihariye y’Umunyamabanga mukuru w’Umuryango w’abibumbye muri Centrafrique, anahabwa kuyobora Ubutumwa bwo kugarura amahoro, MINUSCA.

Undi Munyarwandakazi ufite umwanya ukomeye mu rwego rwo Politiki mpuzamahanga ni Dr Monique Nsanzabaganwa akaba ari Umuyobozi mukuru wungirije w’Umuryango w’Afurika yunze ubumwe, African Union.

Dr Monique Nsanzabaganwa

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