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Byagenda Bite Imishinga Minini Ikomeje Kubamo Ukuboko n’Inguzanyo Bya Leta ?

Yanditswe kuwa

Raporo nshya ya Banki y’Isi yagaragaje ko u Rwanda rukeneye kongera uruhare rw’ishoramari ry’abikorera

nk’uburyo burambye bwatuma haboneka amafaranga akenewe mu mishinga y’ibikorwa remezo.

Iyo raporo imaze kumenyerwa nka ‘Rwanda Economic Update’ yasohotse bwa 17, igaruka ku “Uruhare rw’Urugaga rw’abikorera mu kuziba icyuho mu bikorwa remezo.”

Yagaragaje ko guverinoma y’u Rwanda yakomeje gukora ishoramari rinini, ku buryo nko mu 2019 ryageze kuri 13 ku ijana by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu.

Ni igipimo gishyira u Rwanda ku mwanya wa gatatu ku isi mu gushora amafaranga menshi ugereranyije n’ubukungu bw’igihugu, inyuma ya Timor-Leste na Afghanistan. Nk’igihugu kicyibubaka ariko gikomeje kugira icyuho mu bikorwa remezo bikenewe, kugira ngo kigere ku ntego z’iterambere.

Ni mu gihe ibikorwa remezo ari urwego rubamo ibintu byinshi birimo ingufu, ubwikorezi, amashanyarazi n’itumanaho, ibijyanye n’amazi, isuku n’isukura n’ibindi bituma izindi nzego zibona umusaruro haba ku rwego rw’ibikorerwa mu nganda cyangwa ubuhinzi.

U Rwanda rukeneye ishoramari ringana iki?

Ikigo Global Infrastructure Hub kigaragaza ko kugira ngo u Rwanda ruzabashe kugera ku ntego zigamije iterambere rirambye (SDGs), buri mwaka rukeneye gushora mu bikorwa remezo 8.78 ku ijana by’umusaruro mbumbe warwo.

Mu mwaka ushize icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyahungabanyije ibikorwa byinshi, ahavaga ibitunga leta haragabanyuka mu gihe ari bwo ikeneye gukora byinshi.

Byatumye hifashishwa inguzanyo, ku buryo ideni u Rwanda rufite ryazamutse hafi 10 ku ijana mu mwaka umwe, rikava kuri 62.9 ku ijana by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu 2019 rigera kuri 71.3 ku ijana mu 2020.

Muri uyu mwaka bibarwa ko rigeze muri 73.4 ku ijana ndetse byitezwe ko rizagera kuri 84 mu mwaka wa 2023.

Nyinshi muri izi nguzanyo ni iz’igihe kirekire kandi zafashwe ku nyungu nto, ariko ni amafaranga azishyurwa.

Umuyobozi wa Banki y’Isi mu Rwanda, Roland Pryce, yavuze ko isesengura ryerekanye ko kugira ngo ikomeze ishoramari mu bikorwa bikenewe, Guverinoma ikeneye gukoresha neza uburyo ifite bwo kubona amafaranga.

Ni ukuvuga uhereye ku mafaranga ava imbere mu gihugu nko mu misoro n’amahoro, kugeza ku mafaranga aturuka hanze nk’impano n’inguzanyo.

Yakomeje ati “Ntabwo nabyo ariko byaba bihagije kugira ngo haterwe inkunga imishinga yose, aho ibikorwa remezo bifitemo umugabane munini. Kongera uruhare rw’abikorera mu ishoramari mu bikorwa remezo ni ngombwa cyane kugira ngo u Rwanda rubashe kugera ku ntego zarwoz’iterambere.”

Ni he hari icyuho ?

Raporo ivuga ko nk’imishinga ikenewe iramutse igiye gukorwa hakarebwa gusa ku nguzanyo, byasaba ko ideni rya Leta riva kuri 73.4 by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu rikagera ku 101 ku ijana mu 2024 na 132 ku ijana mu 2030.

Bibaye ko hiringirwa inkunga, kugira ngo u Rwanda rugere ku ntego zigamije iterambere rirambye (SDGs) byasaba ko abaterankunga bakuba inkunga zabo hagati y’inshuro ebyiri n’eshatu ku mwaka, ibintu utavuga ko bishoboka.

Naho bibaye gushakishiriza amikoro imbere mu gihugu byasaba ko imisoro yinjizwa izamurwa ikava kuri 14 % by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu ikagera kuri 22% mu 2040, ibintu nabyo bitapfa gushoboka.

Raporo ikomeza iti “Byagaragaye ko kongera ishoramari mu bikorwa remezo binyuze mu mafaranga aturuka imbere mu gihugu bitanga umusaruro muke ku mibereho n’ubukungu muri rusange, ugereranyije n’inkunga no kuzamura uruhare rw’abikorera, kubera ko imisoro iri hejuru igabanya ubwizigame bwagakoreshejwe irindi shoramari ry’abikorera.”

Ivuga ko n’iyo uburyo busanzwe bwo kubona amafaranga leta yabubyaza umusaruro ushoboka haba mu nkunga, inguzanyo no gukusanya imisoro, byatanga 45 ku ijana gusa by’amafaranga akenewe kugira ngo cya cyuho kivemo.

Iti “Bityo rero, ishoramari ry’abikorera byaba ngombwa ko naryo rizamuka cyane, rikava ku rwego ruriho rujya kuba kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibiba bigomba kujya mu mishinga.”

Kugeza ubu u Rwanda rukomeje kongera ishoramari ry’abikorera bo mu gihugu n’abanyamahanga, rinagira uruhare mu kubaka imishinga ikomeye y’ibikorwaremezo. Nubwo ryiyongera ariko ntabwo rihagije.

Raporo yagaragaje ko nko mu mishinga y’ibikorwa remezo ifite agaciro ka miliyari $1.63, iri munsi ya 30 ku ijana ari yo gusa y’abikorera.

Mu mishinga 18 minini u Rwanda rwatangije kuva mu 2008, itandatu niyo yatewe inkunga n’abikorera – harimo itatu batanzemo yabo n’itatu bafatanyijemo na leta.

Muri ayo mafaranga kandi 73 ku ijana (miliyoni $348 yari inguzanyo), 17 ku ijana (miliyoni $79) yari imigabane yashowemo naho andi (miliyoni $47) ziva ku ruhande.

Urebye ku ishoramari ry’abanyamahanga ryinjiye mu gihugu (Foreign Direct Investment, FDI) igice kijya mu bikorwa remezo nacyo cyarazamutse, kuko ryari miliyoni $119 mu 2009, riba miliyoni $420 mu 2019.

Hari ibikeneye guhinduka

Kugeza ubu imishinga ya rutura irimo gukorwa yose irimo ukuboko kwa Leta, nubwo abikorera bamaze kuzamura uruhare rwabo.

Hari nk’umushinga wa miliyoni $400 w’ikibuga cy’indege cya Bugesera u Rwanda rufatanyijemo na Qatar Airways, uwa gari ya moshi uzahuza u Rwanda, Tanzania n’ibihugu by’akarere, imishinga y’amashanyarazi, imihanda n’iyindi.

Mu yamaze gukorwa ku bufatanye bwa Leta n’abikorera kandi harimo uwa KivuWatt utanga megawatt 26 z’amashanyarazi akomoka kuri gaz methane, umushinga wa Hakan uzatanga megawatt 80 ziva kuri nyiramugengeri, uruganda rw’amazi rwa Kanzenze n’izindi nyinshi.

Minisitiri w’ibikorwa remezi, Gatete Claver, yavuze ko hakenewe kongera ishoramari mu bikorwa remezo, kugira ngo u Rwanda rubashe kugera ku ntego zarwo zirimo iziteganywa na gahunda yo kwihutisha iterambere, icyerekezo 2050 na SDGs.

Yakomeje ati “Ibikorwaremezo bikenewe ku gihugu gifite ubukungu burimo kuzamuka nk’ubwacu, birenze urwego guverinoma yonyine yabasha gushyira mu bikorwa. Dukeneye ishoramari rifatika ry’abikorera kugira ngo rishyigikire iterambere ryacu.”

Yavuze ko Leta ishyize imbere uburyo bwose bwatuma abikorera boroherwa no gushora imari mu bikorwa remezo, bagahabwa n’ubundi bufasha bakeneye.

Ikindi ni ukorohereza abashoramari kugera ku mari bakeneye, binyuze mu mishinga irimo Kigali International Financial Center.

Umuyobozi wUrwego rw’Iterambere (RDB), Clare Akamanzi, yavuze ko mu kurushaho kureshya abashoramari mu bikorwa remezo, harimo gukomeza gukora amavugurura yorohereza abakeneye gushora imari yabo mu Rwanda.

Yakomeje ati “Ikindi dukeneye gukoraho mu kunoza uburyo bwo gukora ubucuruzi harimo kugabanya ikiguzi cyo gukora ubucuruzi, hejuru yo kirohereza abashaka gukora ubucuruzi mu gihugu.”

“Ni ukuvuga ikiguzi kiza iyo bigeze ku kubona ibikorwa remezo, amashanyarazi, ubwikorezi, kubona igishoro, ibyo byose bisigasira igishoro cy’abashaka gukora ishoramari mu gihugu.”

Yavuze ko uyu munsi mu Rwanda hari imishinga 58 ijyanye n’ubufatanye bwa leta n’abikorera, 21 muri yo irakora naho 79 iri ku nzego zitandukanye zo gushyirwa mu bikorwa.

Ni imishinga yose hamwe ifite agaciro ka miliyari $1.8.

Yavuze ko intambwe imaze guterwa ari nziza, ariko hari byinshi bizakomeza gukorwa.

Imwe mu mishinga ya Leta ikorwa nabi kandi yarubatswe ku nguzanyo

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