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Kalindari Y’Abanyarwanda Ba Kera, Mubazi(Calculator)Ya Mbere Mu Mateka…

Yanditswe kuwa

Mu bintu byagiye bivumburwa n’abashakashatsi mu mateka y’isi cyangwa mu mateka y’Afurika, akagufa kitwa “Ishango Bonen’akandi kitwa “Leboombo Bone” dushobora kuba tuzwi na benshi.

Umwarimu w’Amateka Prof Antoine Nyagahene yahaye Taarifa inyandiko ibisobanura:

Yakomeje agira  ati:

Kuba turiya tugufa twagerereranywa n’akagufa k’izuba (kariya ka “Ishango Bone), cyangwa n’akagufa k’ukwezi (kariya ka “Lebombo bone”) byo ni bishya.

Kuba izuba cyangwa ukwezi byagira utugufa, ubwabyo n’amayobera ateye urujijo.

Ibyaribyo byose, ariya magambo y’amavamahanga ya Ishango Bone na Leboobo Bone, ari n’uko turiya tugufa twiswe utugufa tw’izuba cyangwa utugufa tw’ukwezi, byose bikwiye ibisobanuro.

Reka dutangirire kuri biriya byo mu ndimi z’imvamahanga.

1/ ISHANGO BONE bivuze ngo “igufa ry’i-Shango”ni akagufa katoraguwe n’umushakashatsi w’umubiligi witwa Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt mu bisigaratongo biherereye mu karere kitwa Shango, hafi y’umugezi wa Semliki aho uwo mugezi uvira mu kiyaga cya Edouard (ariyo Abanyarwanda bakunze kwita ikiyaga cya Rwicanzige).

Uwo mushakashatsi yatoye ako kagufa mu 1960 mu cyahoze ari Kongo mbiligi kuko icyo gihe Repulika ya Kongo yari itarabona ubwigenge.

Uwo mugabo amaze kugapimisha basanze ari akagufa ko mu kaguru k’inguge y’inkende (= a fibula of ababoon mu Cyongereza) yabayeho hagati y’imyaka 25.000 na 20.000 mbere ya Yesu/Yezu.

Abantu bagakoreshaga icyo gihe bakaza no kugata aho, bari abo mu bihe by’isatura-buye rya nyuma (“Upper Paleolitique) byabayeho hagati y’imyaka 80.000 na 10.000 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu/Yezu.

Igitangaje cy’ako kagufa n’uko basanze gacandazeho udukoni dutondetse mu turundo twinshi tunyuranye ariko tudafite imibare imwe ku buryo bigaragara ko dufite icyo twashakaga kuvuga.

Utwo turundo twose dutonze mu mirongo itatu iva ku mutwe umwe ikagera ku wundi nk’uko tubibona mu bishushanyo bikurikira.

Ako kagufa ubwako kareshya na cm 9 kandi ku mutwe umwe wako gacometsemo akabuye k’agasarabwayi nako gaconze. Ubu aho wagasanga ni mu nzu ndangabikorwa (Musée) y’i Buruseri mu Bubiligi aho Abakoloni bakajyanye.

Kuva kuri wa mushakashatsi w’umubiligi Jean de Heinzelin kugeza no ku bandi bakurikiyeho bageragezaga gusemura impamvu ya turiya dukoni n’icyo dusobanura.

Bose babonye ko ari uburyo bwa mbere na mbere abantu bahimbye bwo kubara ibintu runaka byabaye mu gihe runaka ku buryo batazajya babyibagirwa cyangwa ngo bibagirwe igihe byabereye.

Ubu tuzi neza ko mu bakurambere bacu ba mbere, ari ab’iwacu mu Rwanda, ari abo muri Afurika cyangwa no ku yindi migabane, abantu batangiye kubara ibihe bashingiye ku kwitegereza ingendo z’inyenyeri, iz’izuba cyangwa iz’ukwezi ndetse no ku bindi byogajuru byose babonaga mu kirere.

Aho niho havuye igitekerezo y’icyo bita “ikibariro”.

“Ibibariro” bibiri nibyo byaje kumenyekana cyane  mu mateka; kimwe n’igishingiye ku zuba, ikindi ni igishingiye ku kwezi.

Igishingiye ku zuba kijyana n’imibare 10 cyangwa 12 (10-1; 10+1; 12-1; 12+1) kigahura kandi n’umwaka. Twavuga nk’ibyerekeye ikibariro cy’ingoma runaka, igihe yatangiriye cyangwa yarangiriye, bityo, bityo…; naho ikibariro gishingiye ku Kwezi gihura n’imibare 28 cyangwa 29 bihura n’iminsi y’imihango y’umugore cyangwa amezi y’inka (28+1; 28-1; 29 +1; 29-1); bityo, bityo… ; umugore cyangwa inka bakabyarira ku mezi 9; umwaka nawo ugahura n’amezi 12 cyangwa 13 (= solar system or lunar system).

Abashakashatsi benshi rero, bahereye ku mibare basanze kuri ririya gufa ryavumbuwe i Shango basanze ryaba rijyanye n’ikibariro cy’izuba.

Natwe twasanze bishoboka koko; kubera ko mu bushakashatsi twakoze twifashishije ibihamya bikomotse ku mateka nyemvugo y’uruhererekane rw’imigani n’ibitekerezo dusanga mu karere k’ingoma zo mu burasirazuba bw’Afurika (Rwanda, Burundi, Ndorwa-Ankole, Bunyoro, Buganda,…) dusanga bigwa ku kibariro cy’Izuba nkuko tuza kubyerekana mu mirongo ikurikira.

Twabonye kandi ko icyo kibariro cy’izuba kigendana n’ububasha bw’ubutware cyangwa ubuyobozi, cyangwa se ubuhanga bw’ubwenge bwo mu mutwe kimwe n’ubukorikori binyuranye no mu kibariro cy’ukwezi kijyanye n’ubumenyi bushingiye ku bwenge bw’imvamutima.

Mu byukuri, Abashakashatsi bageze kuri bitekerezo banafatiye no ku tundi tugufa tubiri (2) twari twaravumbuwe mbere ariko bakaba bari bataramenya icyo twasobanuraga.

Hari akagufa ka kabiri kari karigeze kuvumburwa i Shango na none, hari n’akandi kagufa kavumbuwe ahitwa i Leboombo (cyangwa i Lebumbo) ho mu Burasirazuba bw’Amajyepfo y’Afurika hagati ya RepubuLika y’Afurika y’epfo na Swaziland (Eswatini ubu). Ako niko tugiye kuvugaho nako mu mirongo ikurikira.

2/ LEBOOMBO BONE (cyangwa LEBOOMBO BONE):  bisobanuye ngo: “akagufa k’i-Leboombo (cyangwa k’i-Lebumbo)”.  Nkuko twabivuze haruguru, aka kagufa ko kavumbuwe mu majyepfo y’iburasirazuba bw’Afurika mu karere ka Leboombo (cyangwa Lebumbo), hafi y’umupaka wa Repuburika y’Afurika yepfo na Swazilandi ubu yahindutse Eswatini.

Ako kagufa kavumbuwe mu ruhande rwa Eswatini mu bisi by’imisozi ya Lebumbo (Lebumbo Mountains). Ni ahantu hakunze guturwa n’abapfumu cyane kuva kera ku buryo Leta yaje kuhashinga amashuri abiri yamamaye yo guhugura abapfumu: amashuri ya Inyanga na Sangoma.

Hakurikijwe ibipimo bya laboratwari (C14), basanze ako kagufa ka Leboombo karabayeho mu myaka y’ibihumbi mirongo itatu n’itanu (- 35 000) mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu/Yezu.

 Ariko, ibindi bipimo bikoresheje C24 byigijeyo iyo tariki kugera ku myaka ikabakaba hafi y’ibihumbi mirongo ine na bitanu (- 45 000) mbere y’izuka rya Yesu. Bivuze rero ko kabayeho mbere ya ka kandi ka Ishango. Ariko, kimwe n’aka Ishango, akagufa ka Leboombo nako bagahanze bakavanye mu kaguru k’inguge y’inkende (=baboon’s fibula).

Ako kagufa ka Leboombo basanze nako  gacandaze, ariko incandago zako zigera kuri 29 gusa. (Bihuye na 28 + 1; cyangwa 30 – 1; cyangwa 30 – 2). Abashakashatsi (Alexander Marshack,  Claudia Zaslavsky ) bahereyeko bumva ko bihuye n’uburyo bwo kubara mu bihe bya kera mu ntangiriro ariko noneho bishingiye ku “kibariro cy’ukwezi” (=lunar calendar); bityo bikaba byarahimbwe n’abagore bagenekereje kubara bashingiye ku bihe by’imihango yabo ngaruka-kwezi.

Utu tugufwa nitwo kalindari ya mbere

Kandi ukwezi kw’umugore cyangwa kw’inka guhura n’ibyumweru bine, icyumweru kikamara iminsi irindwi (kuva ku minsi 5 kugeza kuri 7 dukurikije imico y’ibihugu byo uri aka karere) nk’uko nanone umugore abyarira ku mezi icyenda (kimwe n’inka).

Ikibariro cy’ukwezi rero nicyo cyabanjirije ikibariro cy’izuba kandi ninacyo cyatanze  iminsi y’icyumweru naho ikibariro cy’izuba kikaba cyaratanze ikibariro cy’umunsi hamwe n’icy’umwaka umara iminsi 365 cyangwa 366.

Umugore niwe wahimbye ikibariro cya mbere( calendar)

Ibi nibyo bituma Abashakashatsi benshi bavuga ko umugore ariwe wabanje guhimba ikibariro cyanditse (= gicandaje kw’igufa), mbese ko ariwe wabanje guhimba imibare n’uburyo bwo kubara kuva kuri rimwe kugera kw’icumi; ibyo kandi bikaba byarabayeho kuva mu ntangiriro ahagana mu myaka ibihumbi mirongo ine na bitanu mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu/Yezu (- 45 000 BCE) kandi byarabereye mu karere k’Afurika y’iburasirazuba kuva muri za Ethiopia kugeza muri Afurika y’epfo .

Hari ukuntu kandi ibi bidakwiye gushidikanywaho kubera ko kugeza none dusanga ibihamya bisa n’ibyo bigikoreshwa mu miryango ya ba Koisans batuye muri Namibiya y’ubu.

Ndetse hari n’ibisigazwa by’ibisigaratongo (archeological artefacts) byavumbuwe muri Afurica y’epfo (ahitwa Border Cave) byerekana ko mu myaka ibihumbi mirongo irindwi na bitanu mbere ya Yesu/Yezu (- 75 000 BCE) ibikoresho by’utugufa nka turiya twa Lebumbo twakoreshwaga mu miryango ya ba KoïSans (reba mu nyandiko nka “Early evidence of Sun material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences -PNAS).

NONE SE UTWO TUGUFA TWA “ISHANGO BONE NALEBOOMBO BONE” TWAJE GUHINDUKA DUTE “AKAGUFA K’IZUBA N’AKAGUFA K’UKWEZI” ?

Tumaze kubona ko turiya tugufa twombi twavumbuwe mu nyigo no mu bushakashatsi bw’abahanga bakomoka hanze ya Afurika cyane cyane i Burayi, twibajije icyo ba nyirubwite b’Abanyafurika bo babuhanze babukuye mu tuguru tw’inguge, bakageza naho babushushanyaho bakoresheje ziriya ncandago zose twabonye haruguru nicyo bashakaga kugeraho.

Twabonye ko Abazungu b’abacukumbuzi babuvumbuye vuba aha (nyuma 1950) nyamara abakurambere bacu bo babukoze bakanabushushanyaho bakaba barabayeho kera cyane (mu myaka irenga ibihumbi mirongo ine na bitanu (- 45 000) mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu/Yezu.

Bariya bacukumbuzi bo baketse ko bishoboka kuba ari intangiriro ya za mubazi za mbere na mbere z’uburyo bwo kwandika imibare y’ibihe ishingiye mu kibariro cy’izuba cyangwa cy’ukwezi.

None se twebwe twabona ingenekerezo cyangwa se gihamya zadufasha kumenya icyo bariya bantu bashoboraga kuba batekereza cyangwa bari bagamije bashushanya kuri turiya tugufa ?

Uretse kwiga kuri biriya bisigaratongo cyangwa ibisigarabutaka, twebwe, nk’uko twabivuze haruguru, twifashishije ibihamya bikomotse ku mateka nyemvugo nk’uko yagiye ahererekanywa n’abakurambere bacu bo muri aka karere ko mu burasirazuba bwa Afurika muri rusange no mu karere ko mu biyaga bigari by’umwihariko ariho banavuga ko ariho hakomoka n’umuntu wa mbere kw’isi (“cradle of humanity”).

Utugufwa tw’inguge nitwo abasokuru bakoresheje bakora kalindari za mbere

Muri ibyo bihamya rero dusangamo ibitekerezo, imigani n’izindi mvugo zose z’umwimerere zituganisha mu ntangiriro y’abantu n’ibintu nk’uko abakurambere bacu babyiyumvishaga ubwabo mbere y’uko Abazungu b’abakoloni n’abamisiyoneri babashyiramo ibindi bitekerezo bishya cyane cyane ibijyanye n’imyemerere yazanywe n’amadini mvamahanganga nka “Mungu; Satani, Ijuru n’Isi, umuriro utazima n’ibindi, n’ibindi”.

Mu by’ukuri ntabwo mu bushakashatsi twakoraga harimo ibyerekeye turiya tugufa twa “ishango” cyangwa twa “leboombo” kuko tutari tunatuzi, ahubwo twari tugamije kumenya uko Abanyafurika ba kera babaragaho, cyane cyane Abanyafurika bo muri aka karere k’Ibiyaga bigari duhereye ku Banyarwanda, mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu.

Mu gitabo turi kwandika ku mateka y’u Rwanda mu bihe bya Gihanga ndetse na mbere yaho (Antoine Nyagahene, “Amateka y’u Rwanda; Umuco n’Ubumenyi. Mbere ya Gihanga, mu Bihe bya Gihanga na nyuma ya Gihanga” …..), duterura tugira tuti: “kera iyo Abanyarwanda babaraga ibihe (umwaka, ukwezi, umunsi, amanywa n’ijoro) babaga bashingiye ku kwezi, ku zuba, ku nyenyeri, ku bicu n’imiyaga, ku ngoma z’abami, ku nzara (nka Ruzagayura, Rumanura, etc.), ku byorezo (nka Muryamo, ubushita, umwaduko w’Abazungu….), ku mihango y’umwaka (nk’Umuganura, icyunamo cya Gicurasi, bityo bityo…)”.

Tumaze kubyiga ku buryo burambuye, twasanze Abanyarwanda nabo baragenderaga ku “kibariro cy’ukwezi” cyangwa ku “kibariro cy’izuba” hakurikijwe uko abahanga b’icyo gihe barimo Abenge cyangwa Abamenyi, Abiru, Abacurabwenge, Abapfumu, n’abandi n’abandi bari barashoboye kubizimbura.  

Twasanze kandi nkuko bari bifitiye ubwo buryo bwabo gakondo bwo “kubara ibihe” ari nako bari bafite n’uburyo gakondo bwo kwerekana “ibyerekezo by’isi” binyuranye n’iby’ubu twazaniwe n’abazungu.

 Ibyo byose tubibonera cyane cyane mu migani no mu bitekerezo karande abakurambere badusigiye, cyane cyane ku gitekerezo cy’inkomoko zacu cyitwa “ibirari”.

Muri icyo gitekerezo batwumvisha ukuntu isi y’Abanyarwanda (-twumve neza ko Isi yose ari U Rwanda-) yari igizwe n’ibice bitatu.

Hari igice cyo hejuru, kw’I-Juru, ariho kwa Nkuba (ari nawe bita Shyerezo), hari igice cyo ku butaka, hano kw’I-si, iyi dukandagiraho, hakaba n’igice cya gatatu, ari cyo cyo munsi y’ubutaka, i-Kuzimu kwa Nyamuzinda cyangwa Nyamunsi hatuwe n’Abazimu, igihe kw’i-si ho hatuwe n’Abazima.

Birumvikana ko Abazimu nabo baba babanje kuba Abazima bagituye kw’i-si. Muri izo si zose, harimo kandi n’ibindi byerekezo bizwi. Mu magambo make twavuga ko hari hejuru no hasi, iburyo n’ibumoso, amajyaruguru n’amajyepfo, iburasirazuba n’iburengerazuba, bityo bityo.

Reka tuvuge ku mateka y’iburasirazuba nay’iburengerazuba kuko ariyo yo yatugeza ku nkuru y’akagufa k’izuba n’akagufa k’ukwezi, ari nabyo bihura nanone n’ikibariro cy’izuba ndetse n’ikibariro cy’ukwezi.

Iyo Abanyarwanda bagenekerezaga muri bya bitekerezo byabo, bavugaga ko uko izuba rirasira  i-Burasirazuba  riba rivuye i-Butumbi kwa Nyamuzinda cyangwa se i-Bucubira, ari naho bitaga kandi i-Buragurabana (kuko ngo abaho bose bavukaga bazi kuragura) hakaba herekeza muri za Ndorwa na Karagwe, na za Bushubi, na za Bushingo, …. Aha niho tubona ko hakomotse n’ubukara bwo kwa Nkara ya Kazigaba, cyangwa se Runukamishyo w’Umusinga bari bazi kuragura cyane.

Ninaho hakomoka Abashambo b’i-Butumbi, n’abandi n’abandi.

Naho i-Burengerazuba ariho izuba rirengera, niho bitaga i-Buryabantu cyangwa mu-Buryoko kuko hari hatuwe n’Abaryoko. Aho mu Baryoko, bakundaga inyama cyane ku buryo n’izuba ryaharengeraga bakaribaga bakarirya.

Ariko ntabwo bibagirwaga na rimwe gusiga akagufa karyo; ako kagufa bakagaterera kw’ijuru, kakajya kugwa i-Burasirazuba, kakaba ariko kazahinduka izuba rishya rizongera kurasa mu gitondo gikurikiyeho. Aho i-Burengerazuba ni mu nce z’u-Bunyabungo, u-Bushi, u-Buhavu n’u-Burega, hakurya y’ikiyaga cya Kivu (cyangwa icya Rwicanzige=Lake Eduard). Ibyo bikaba aribyo bituma, ahari, tubona izuba ryatukuye nimugoroba iyo rirenga, risa n’iryavuye amaraso.

Ibyerekeye akaguru k’inguge n’uko izuba ryabagwaga n’abantu batuye muri ziriya nce zegeranye n’ishyamba kimeza riherereye iburengerazuba, hanyuma akagufa karyo kakajugunywa buri mugoroba kw’ijuru rishyira iburasirazuba, kakaba ariko kazahinduka izuba rishya, ibyo byose twabisanga mu ngenekerezo z’ishusho-mvugo zikubiye muri bya bitekerezo by’ibirari n’imigani bivuga ku nkomoko z’ibintu n’iz’abantu n’ibiremwa byose.

Igenekereza ry’uturongo two kuri turiya tugofwa

Ibyo kandi tukabisanisha n’imihango yakorerwaga i Bwami ku nguge yahabaga iteka. Iyo mihango yakorwaga n’abo twakwita abahanga n’abamenyi bagizwe n’abapfumu n’abiru,  bari bashinzwe kumenya “ibihe” bashingiye mu kwitegereza ikirere, imiyaga, inyenyeri kimwe n’ibyogajuru byose uko byagendaga bizenguruka ubudasiba kandi bakamenya n’uko bigira ingaruka ku bantu no ku bisimba kuko bumvaga neza ko batakwitandukanya nabyo  mu gihe babona ko nabyo bifite ubuzima.

Muri iryo bagwa ry’izuba ryatumaga habaho umunsi n’ijoro kimwe n’akagufa kaguruka kakava iburengerazuba kakagwa iburasirazuba dusangamo imvugo shusho ihinduka ishusho ngiro ishingiye ku bubasha budasanzwe ikarema ibintu bikabaho.

Nicyo gituma, nkuko abo bantu ba mbere bari baritegereje ukuntu inguge zo mu biti zisimbuka ziva ku giti zikagwa  mu kindi, bibwiraga ko bakwifashisha akagufa ko mu kaguru kazo nabo bakabona ubushobozi bwo guhuza uburengerazuba n’uburasirazuba.

Koko rero mu ntangiriro za muntu (cyane cyane mu bihe by’ubuhigi n’ubutoratozi), ubuhanga n’ubumenyi byatangiriye ku bukorikori n’amageza asa n’adafatika ashingiye ku mitongero, ku bubasha bw’ijambo no ku gukoresha imyuka cyangwa kuyituma kure ukaba wakora igikorwa ku hantu hatakwegereye.

Bityo, umuntu w’icyo gihe, mbere yo kujya guhiga, yashoboraga gushushanya nk’inyamaswa ku gikuta cy’ubuvumo cyangwa ku gikoresho cy’igufa yabaje akerekana ko yayirashe umwambi, akumva ko byabaye nta kabuza cyangwa biza kuba ageze mu muhigo nyirizina.

Kandi kuba barabonaga ko ibihe byahoraga bihinduka uko izuba, ukwezi cyangwa inyenyeri n’ibindi byogajuru byose byagendaga bizenguruka ariko byisuramo ubuziraherezo, byabahaye igitekerezo cyo kwiga no kumenya uko bigenda bikurikirana, bityo umuntu akaba yakora n’iteganyagihe cyabyo ngo atazatungurwa ubutaha. 

Ibi byose nibyo bitwumvisha ya sano twabonye hagati y’ikibariro cy’izuba cyangwa cy’ukwezi, n’incandago bakoraga ku kaguru k’inguge ngo biyibutse uko ibihe byakurikiranye n’incuro runaka igikorwa cyangwa umuhango byagiye biboneka.

Koko rero, ni muri urwo rwego, mu bushakashatsi twakoze, twabonye ko imyumvire y’ibihe ku Banyafurika muri rusange, cyane cyane Abanyafurika bo mu karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari by’umwihariko, ihabanye cyane n’imyumvire y’ibihe dusanga ku yindi migabane y’isi cyane cyane iy’Abanyaburayi.

Mu myumvire y’Abanyaburayi, nkuko banabidusigiye ubungubu nyuma y’ubukoloni, ibihe birasimburana kandi bikajya imbere bikurikije umurongo umwe ubudasubira inyuma (=conception linéaire du temps/linear conception of time mu ndimi z’amahanga), naho mu myumvire gakondo y’Abanyarwanda, ibihe bigenda bisimburana ariko ntibikurikira umurongo umwe ugororotse, ahubwo ibyahise bigenda bigaruka, n’ubwo biba byahindutse bidasa neza neza nk’iby’ubu, ariko bijya imbere byabanje kwinyuranamo (=conception cyclique du temps/cyclical conception of time mu ndimi z’amahanga).

Mu Kinyarwanda, hari ejo hashize n’ejo hazaza, ariko ibyo bihe byombi n’ejo. Kandi Abanyarwanda barivugira bati : “bucya bwitwa ejo” cyangwa bati : “ibirenge bijya imbu kujya imbere”. Iminsi, amezi, imyaka, ingoma (z’ubutegetsi), byose bigenda bisimburana, ariko ku Banyarwanda n’ubwo iminsi yose idahwana ariko irasa. “Ingoma zihora zihindura imirishyo”.

Uko ubwami bwo mu Karere k’Ibiyaga bigari bwakurikiranye n’isano bufitanye

 Urubyaro rw’ubu rushushanya “abakurambere”. Ninacyo gituma, akenshi mu Banyarwanda, amazina yo mu bisekuru akunda kugaruka.

Ubwo mu bazungu bita abana babo amazina ya ba se, mu Kinyarwanda, umwana ahubwo ashobora kwitwa izina ry’umwe mu basekuru be.

No mu mihango, Abanyarwanda bemera ko, nyuma y’ibisekuru bine, icyiciro gishya cy’Abakurambere kiba gitangiye, nubwo kiba gishushanya igishize.

 Ninacyo kitwumvisha impamvu yatumaga Abanyarwanda bakora imihango yihariye iyo ibyo bisekuru bine byabaga bihise.

Aha twavuga nk’imihango yo gusenda abazimu, ibintu bigatangira bundi bushya. Mu mihango y’i-Bwami niho bigaragara cyane.

Nko mu bami b’Abanyiginya, tuzi uko amazina y’ibisekuru yakurikiranaga: Cyirima cyangwa Mutara nibo babanzaga, hagakurikiraho ba Kigeli, Mibambwe na Yuhi.

 Mu bami b’Abega bo mu Bumbogo, hari: Mumbogo, Nyamurasa, Musana, n’ahandi n’ahandi aho byakurikijwe (mu bami b’Abasindi, b’Abagesera, b’Abakono, b’Abasinga, mbese hirya no hino).

Muri icyo kibariro cy’izuba, dufashe nk’urugero rw’u Rwanda, dusanga kuva mu bihe bya kera, nko mu bihe bya Gihanga, ndetse na mbere yaho cyane, mu bihe by’ubutoratozi n’isaturabuye (=Paleolitique), by’isenabuye (=Neolithique) cyangwa bw’icyuma (=Iron age) bamaze guhimba ubuhinzi, ubworozi, ububumbyi ndetse no gushongesha ubutare, bahereyeko banamenya kubara ingano y’iminsi, y’icyumweru n’umwaka, bari bazi kubara ingano y’ibintu n’inshuro birutanwa, ari ibikomoka ku buhinzi, ku bworozi, ku bubaji, ku bucuzi, mbese ku bukorokori bwose (reba mu nyandiko za Nyagahene Antoine, 1979, 1997).

Mbere na mbere, mu bushakashatsi twakoze, twasanze mu kubara baratangiriye ku bice by’umubiri wabo: kuva ku ntoki, ku kiganza no ku gipfunsi (1-10), bakomereza mu ntangiriro z’ukuboko (mu tujana=100), bagera mu nkokora (=cubit cyangwa coudée mu ndimi z’amahanga), mu ntugu no mu gihumbi no mu ntimatima (1000), ku murambararo; hanyuma bigeze mu bwinshi baza kuganisha mw’igenekereza z’intekerezo zo mu mutwe zishingiye ku bidukikije nk’inyamaswa cyane cyane.

Mu rwego rw’ibihe, bagendera ku zuba, ku kwezi, ku nyenyeri, ku bicu n’imiyaga, bityo bashobora kubara ibice by’umunsi, amanywa n’ijoro, icyumweru, ukwezi, umwaka, n’ibindi byose bimara igihe kirekire icyaricyo cyose, nk’ubuzima bw’umuntu, nk’ingoma n’amateka, bityo bityo.

Dutanze ingero yenda niho byakumvikana neza:

a) Ikibariro cy’umunsi:

Ibice by’umunsi byari bifite ikibariro cyabyo aribyo bitaga “imirundi y’umunsi”: kuva mu bunyoni no mu museke, kugeza izuba rirashe, inka zahuka, abantu bafashe amasuka, kuzageza mu mashoka y’inka, inka zikuka, inyana zisubiye iswa, bityo bityo kuzageza kw’ijoro, inka zitaha, zigakamwa, zigahumuza, abantu bakagera  matarama, mu maryama, ijoro rinishye, bityo, bityo…. (ibyo bice byose  by’umunsi, uwabishaka yabibona mu bitabo hirya no hino).

Naho kuba babyita “imirundi y’umunsi” ntibyaburakutwibutsa rya gufa ryo mu kaguru k’inguge. Birasa nkaho iryo bara ryavuye ku murundi w’umuntu kugasimburwa n’akagufa ko mu kaguru k’inguge, ko bashoboraga gucaho uturongo tw’incadago kandi kagashobora no kuguruka (gusimbuka) kakava iburengerazuba kakagera iburasirazuba (reba ifoto haruguru).

 Biragaragara ahangaha ko turi mw’igenekereza kandi turi mu kibariro cy’izuba kiduha ibihe by’umunsi n’ijoro.

b) Icyumweru :

Abanyarwanda bakurikizaga “Icyumweru cya Gihanga” cyari gifite iminsi itanu (5). Ariko bitavuze ko bitari biriho na mbere ye. Turabona ko byatangiye igihe abantu bari bamaze kumenya ko hari ikindi kintu kiri hejuru ya byose (Imana?), kuva kuri ba Muntu-Rwema, umuntu ugenda yemye (= Homo Erectus).

Muri icyo cyumweru, harimo iminsi ine (4) yo gukora, ariyo bitaga “imibyizi”, uwa gatanu ukitwa “Icyumweru” cyangwa “icyumweru cya Gihanga”, ukaba umunsi w’ikiruhuko.

Uwo munsi ntawakinishaga gukora umurimo uvunanye cyane cyane guhingisha isuka.

Ninaho havuye wa mugani ngo “wica icyumweru cya Gihanga, inkuba ikaribika mu nda” bishaka kuvuga ko bitinde bitebuke uba ugomba kuzabiryozwa.

Kandi koko, uwabigeragezaga, umuntu wese yashoboraga kumwaka iyo suka, agakubitwa cyangwa akaregwa i-bwami. Ibi byahuraga n’ikibariro cy’izuba: (5-1)x2; (5+1)x2; …, bityo bityo mu kibariro cy’izuba.

Umwami Yuhi IV Gahindiro niwe wigeze gushyiraho “icyumweru cye” cy’iminsi munani [(5-1)x2] ariko ntabwo yigeze avanaho icyumweru cya Gihanga, ahubwo yashyizeho “gahunda ndakuka” y’uko imirimo ye igomba gukurikirana kandi buri wese akagomba kubyubahiriza.

Iyo gahunda yari iteye itya: umunsi wa mbere n’uwa kabiri yari iminsi yo kuragura (kwumva amabwiriza y’Imana ?); umunsi wa gatatu n’uwa kane yari iminsi yo guca imanza; umunsi wa gatanu wari uwo kurasa no kumasha; umunsi wa gatandatu wari uwo kwakira Rubanda ku karubanda; umunsi wa karindwi wari uwo kwakira abagore be ntawumurogoya keretse umutekerera itabi naho umunsi wa munani wari umunsi w’inka no gusura inyana zavutse muri icyo cyumweru (aha haratwibutsa “igitero cyo ku munsi w’inyana).

c) Ukwezi :

Ukwezi kwa kinyarwanda ko kugizwe n’iminsi 28 cyangwa 29 (28+1); Guhwanye n’ukwezi kw’inka cyangwa ukwezi kw’umugore. Tuzi ko inka cyangwa umugore babyarira amezi cyenda.

Kubera ko ukwezi kwa kinyarwanda kwari gufite iminsi 28=(5+2)x4, turaza kubona ko n’umwaka umara amezi 13 kugirango bihure n’iminsi yose y’umwaka (28×13=364).

Ndetse abiru n’abamenyi b’i Bwami bari bazi n’ukuntu nyuma y’imyaka ine bongeragaho iminsi ibiri (2), bigatuma iminsi y’umwaka ishyika 366, bityo ibihe by’umwaka bigahura neza n’ibihe by’ikirere cy’uburumbuke bw’imyaka n’imibumbe yo kw’ijuru (izuba n’ukwezi).

Isura y’umubumbe w’ukwezi nawo werekanaga ibihe. Ibyo bihe byari bigabanije mo kane. Hari imboneko mu ntangiriro z’ukwezi, kukiri guto, kukamurikisha kimwe cya kane kandi kukaza kare guhereye iburengerazuba,  hagakurikiraho inzora mu bihe byo hagati, kose kukagaraza urumuri, uruziga rwose rwuzuye, nyuma yaho hakaba Impera zako nanone kukamurikisha kimwe cya kane ariko kukaza gutinze, kukarangizanya n’ igihe cy’imyijima kutagaragara na gato.

d) Umwaka :

Umwaka wa kinyarwanda wagiraga amezi cumi n’atatu 13 (12+1 cyangwa (5+1)x2+1. Ayo mezi yakurikiranaga atya : Nzeri, Ukwakira, Ugushyingo, Ukuboza, Mutarama, Gashyantare, Werurwe, (Mata), Gicurasi, Kamena, Nyakanga, Tumba-Kanama na Tumba-Nyakime.

Nzeri, yahindutse ubu ukwezi kwa cyenda (= September/Septembre) niyo yari ukwezi kwa mbere k’umwaka wa Kinyarwanda

Umwaka wa kinyarwanda kandi ugizwe n’ibice bine bijyana n’ihinga cyangwa isarura kimwe n’imihango (y’ubwiru) yakorwaga buri mwaka. Ibyo bihe ni ibi: Umuhindo (Nzeri-Ukwakira-ukuboza), Urugaryi (Mutarama-Gashyantare), Itumba (Gashyantare-Mata-Gicurasi) n’Impeshyi bita Icyi (Kamena-Nyakanga-Kanama).

e) Naho kubara imibare mu buryo bwa gakondo byari biteye bite ?

Twabonye haruguru ko batangiriye kubarira ku bice by’umubiri wabo ndetse bakaza no kugera kubibakikije cyane cyane inyamaswa.

Aha twakongeraho ko iyo mibare itavugaga gusa ku bifatika, ahubwo yari ifite n’ibindi bisobanuro birebana n’iby’umwuka (= symbolism), ibifatika bigasobanura cyangwa bikaba ari ishusho y’ibidafatika (= images and symbols).

– Twatangirira nko k’umubare rimwe (1), bivuga rimwe-rutoki cyangwa rimwe-rudori (= mukubita-rukoko), ariko uvuga n’ikintu kibanza: ikintu kimwe, umuntu umwe, inka imwe; ikintu cya mbere cyangwa kibanza.

Umuntu wa mbere, umwana wa mbere, inka ya mbere; ikintu, umuntu, umwana, inka….; icya kabiri; icya gatatu, icya kane, bityo, bityo,… Umubare gatandatu cyangwa igitandatu; umubare karindwi; umubare umunani, icyenda, icumi byose bifite ibisobanuro mu muco no mu mibereho y’abantu.

– Kuva kw’icumi ukageza kw’ijana (100): Ubwo uba wamaze kubarira ku ntoki, ukagera mu kiganza, mu gipfunsi, ukagera mu tujana, hanyuma mu nkokora, ugakomeza kuzageza mu gihumbi (1000) mu ntima-tima.

Aho hagati, iyo uvuye kw’icumi, uba watangiye gukora cyangwa guca imirongo (ku maguru cyangwa ku murundi wawe ?, ku kaguru k’inguge se?):

Ugakora umurongo umwe (I), imirongo ibiri(II), imirongo itatu cyangwa mirongwitatu (III), mirongwine (IIII), mirongwitanu(IIII+ I), mirongwitandatu (IIII+II), …. bityo bityo kuzageza kw’ijana.

Ahangaha hatwibutsa rya “jana ryaBisangwa” ! Biragaragara ko ubu dutangiye kubara inka! (Ijana mu buke, amagana mu bwinshi; cyangwa tukaramukanya tuti: “amashyo, amagana”).

Nicyo gituma kuva kw’ijana kugeza ku gihumbi (1000) uba waciye ku magana: maganabiri, maganatatu, maganane, maganatanu, bityo, bityo,… kugera ku gihumbi.

– Kuva ku gihumbi kugeza ku gihumbi inshuro ijana bibyara agahumbi (1000×100).

  Aha twakwibuka umwami Ruganzu Bwimba aca iteka ryarebaga Abasinga igihe bangaga gutabarira u Rwanda, akabwira Nyina ati: “imyaka agahumbi, Abasinga mudasubira ku ngoma byavugaga imyaka igihumbi inshuro ijana Abasinga batongera gutanga abagabekazi.

– Kuva ku gahumbi  inshuro igihumbi  bihinduka inzovu (1000×1000).

– Kuva ku nzovu ukagera ku nzovu inshuro ijana (inzovu x 100) bikaba akayovu.

– Kuva ku kayovu ukageza ku nzovu inshuro igihumbi (inzovu x 1000) bikaba urukwavu.

– Kuva ku rukwavu ukageza ku rukwavu inshuro ijana (urukwavu x 100) bikaba agakwavu.

Icyo twakongeraho kindi kigaragara, iyo umuntu akurikiranye mu mvugo no mu bitekerezo, n’uko ka kagufa katowe i Shango, hafi y’Ikiyaga cya Rwicanzige (Lake Edouard) niko kajyana n’ikibariro cy’izuba (Solar Calendar), naho ka kandi ka Leboombo, mu majyepfo ho muri Esuwatini, ko kajyana n’ikibariro cy’ukwezi (Lunar Calendar).

Kuvuga ibyo twabishingira kuki?

Kuva mu bihe bishize (ndetse kugeza na n’ubu), ubwo twari turi kwiga amateka y’ibihe byabanjirije Gihanga no mu nkomoko ze, byahereyeko bitwerekeza ku Bwami-Nyabami bwa Kitara no ku ngoma z’Abacwezi.

Dutangiriye no kwibaza kuri aya mazina ubwayo, byaduha intango z’intekerezo zimbitse:

 “U Bwami-Nyabami bwa Kitara” twumvamo ubwami-nyabami “bw’urumuri” cyangwa “bw’umuriro” naho mu “ngoma z’Abacwezi”, twumvamo cyane cyane ingoma z’abavuye ku “kwezi” cyangwa mu “kwezi”. Twabishyira hamwe, tukumva ko ari ingoma cyangwa se “ubwami-nyabami bw’urumuri rw’ukwezi”.

Bivuzeko, mu rundi ruhande, muri aka karere twakoragamo ubushakashatsi, harimo n’ingoma z’urumuri rw’izuba.

Kandi nibyo koko. Ubu bushakashatsi rero, nkuko igishushanyo cy’imbonerahamwe gikurikira kibigaragaza, bwatugejeje kw’isano iri hagati y’ingoma zose zakomotse ku Bwami-Nyabami bwa Kitara.

Uko bigaragara, hari amatsinda atatu y’abantu bashyingiranywe bakabyarana abana, abo bana bakaba aribo bashinga izo ngoma zose dusanga muri aka karere k’i-Burasirazuba bw’Afurika: hari itsinda ry’Ibimanuka ryavuye kwa Nkuba, ariwe Shyerezo, umwami wo kw’i-Juru, hari itsinda ry’Abasangwabutaka ryakomotse kuri iyi Si dukandagiyeho, hakaba n’itsinda ry’Abanyabutumbi ryavuye mu nsi y’ubutaka i-Butumbi cyangwa i-Kuzimu kwa Nyamuzinda bamwe bita Nyamiyonga cyangwa Nyamunsi, ariwe mwami wo munsi y’ubutaka.

Biriya bice byose by’inkomoko ya bariya bantu bihuye nanone n’imyemerere dusanga hirya no hino muri aka karere ivuga ko iyi Si yacu (= Universe) igizwe n’ibice bitatu: hari igice cyo kw’Ijuru, igice cyo ku i-Si ku butaka, n’igice cyo munsi y’ubutaka, ariho bita i-Kuzimu, ari naho hatuye “abazimu” (=ghosts, spirits, ancestors, etc.).

Nkuko abazimu batuye i-Kuzimu nyine, ibindi bice bya mbere byo bituwe n’abazima ari nabo bahinduka abazimu iyo bamaze gupfa.

Kandi nkuko abazima n’abazimu bamenyana, bakagenderana, bagafashanya ninako biriya bice uko ari bitatu bakomokamo bifatanye kandi byumvikana bigakora i-Si imwe.

Ikindi twashakaga kwerekana gishingiye kuri ibi bihamya byose twatanze haruguru nuko ziriya ngoma zifitanye isano n’i-Kuzimu (= i-Butumbi) nka ziriya z’Abacwezi, Abatembuzi n’Abanyabutumbi  cyane cyane ziriya z’Abene Ruhinda (Abakama, Abahinda)arizo ziherereye i-Burasirazuba (= Eastern part) bwo muri aka karere, naho izifitanye isano no kw’i-Juru nka ziriya z’Abene-Gihanga (Abami, Abanyagihanga) ziherereye i-Burengerazuba (= Western part) bw’aka karere. Byongeye kandi uko ziriya z’i-burasirazuba zigendana niby’i-kuzimu ninako zijyana n’ikibariro cy’ukwezi (lunar calendar) naho izigendana n’ibyo kw’ijuru zikoresha ikibariro cy’izuba.

Ni muri urwo rwego twa tugufa natwo tugenda mu kirere cyangwa mu kuzimu mu buryo bukurikira:

Akagufa k’izuba (Ishango bone) kavumbuwe iburengerazuba, kiihinda cyangwa kihisha (=gupfa) mu mwijima w’ijoro kakajugunywa gaturuka iburengerazuba kajya iburasirazuba ariho kaza kuzukira mu gitondo cya kare kabaye izuba rishya noneho rikava iburasirazuba rigana iburengerazuba; naho ka kagufa k’ukweezi (Le Boombo Bone) kavumbuwe iburasirazuuba (i Leboombo muri Eswatini) kihisha (=gupfa) ku manywa y’ihangu kagaca i Kuzimu munsi y’ubutaka kakazitangaza mu mwijima.

Ibi by’akagufa k’ukwezi (Le Boombo bone) tubikura cyane cyane mu migani n’ibitekerezo dusanga mu baturage bo mu majyepfo y’Afurika nk’Abanguni, Abaswati, Abazulu, Abaxosa ndetse no mu Bakoyiza, aho berekana ko bakoresha mbere na mbere ikibariro cy’ukwezi kandi ko bashyira imbere imihango yerekeye ku bagore n’abakobwa nkuko Abashakashatsi bavumbuye kariya kagufa nabo babyerekana. Kuri iriya mihango twatanga urugero nko ku muhango wabo w’umuganura, uw’ishyingira cyangwa ku muhango w’imiseke (= twa duti tuboneka hafi y’amazi y’ibiyaga cyangwa imigezi – reeds -).

Nicyo cyatumye kandi bariya Bashakashatsi banzura ko bishoboka ko ari abantu b’igitsina gore bahimbye mbere na mbere kw’isi imibare no kubara kandi ko byose byakomotse muri Afurika yo mu burasirazuba no mu majyepfo mbere yo kuzamuka ngo bigere mu Misiri no gukwirakwira ku yindi migabane y’isi biciye muri za Mezopotamiya.

Ibyaribyo byose ntawatsemba ngo abihakane kuko n’ubundi Abahanga bose ubungubu bemeza ko n’umuntu ubwe, inkomoko ye, ari muri aka karere (– “Africa, the cradle of Humanity” cyangwa “Afrique, le berceau de l’Humanité” – mu ndimi z’amahanga).

Nonese ibyo by’imyandikire n’imibare byo byabuzwa n’iki kuba bikomoka ino ?

Hari ndetse n’ikindi gitekerezo abantu bakwiye gukomeza kugerageza gushakaho gihamya kivuga ko, nkuko bariya bantu ba mbere, bandikaga ku kagufa ko mu kaguru k’inguge (“on the fibula of the baboon”) baturutse hepfo cyangwa haruguru, ninako imyandikire y’ubu yo kuva ibumoso ujya iburyo cyangwa kuva iburyo ujya ibumoso, nabyo byaba byarakomotse muri aka karere.

 Muri ibyo bihe byambere, birasa nkaho, abagenderaga ku kibariro cy’izuba (ndetse bagashingira imihango yabo cyane ku gitsina-gabo), bandikaga baturutse hejuru ahagana kw’ivi berekeza hasi, naho abakurikiraga ikibariro cy’ukwezi (ndetse bagashingira imihango yabo cyane ku gitsina-gore), bandikaga baturutse hasi ku kirenge bagana hejuru.

 Twabonye ko bariya ba mbere b’ikibariro cy’izuba (ba Ishango bone) batereraga ako kagufa k’izuba kakava i-burengerazuba (= ibumoso) kakajya kugwa iburasirazuba (= iburyo) kaciye kw’ijuru.

Naho bariya b’ikibariro cy’ukwezi (Leboombo bone) akagufa k’ukwezi kacaga munsi y’ubutaka i-kuzimu kakava iburasirazuba (=iburyo) kakajya kugwa iburengerazuba (=ibumoso) nkuko twabibonye ku gishushanyo kiri haruguru (Fig. no…). Bityo, ibyerekezo bigasa nk’ibyo ku rupapuro rw’ubu.

Ibyaribyo byose kugirango umuntu abibonere gihamya ndakuka ntibyoroshye kuko byose biri mu rwego rw’igenekerezo ry’ishusho-mvugo n’ishusho-ngiro. Ukuri kuri mu ntekerezo zo mu mutwe (= images and symbols).

N.B:Iyi ni inyandiko bwite ya Prof Antoine Nyagahene.

Prof Nyagahene Antoine, umwarimu w’amateka
Igitekerezo 1

1 Comment

  1. Ngabire

    11 May 2021 at 11:19 am

    Ni iby’igikundiro kugira inkomoko mba ndoga Abasinga

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