Uko Iterambere Mu Kubika Amakuru Mu Ikoranabuhanga Ryakuze - Taarifa
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Ikoranabuhanga

Uko Iterambere Mu Kubika Amakuru Mu Ikoranabuhanga Ryakuze

Yanditswe kuwa

Muri iki gihe ikoranabuhanga mu kubika amakuru ryaragutse cyane k’uburyo hari ibyuma bifite ubushobozi bwo kubika amakuru yose yanditse mu bitabo biri muri Nzu y’ibitabo y’u Bwongereza  kuko muri iki gihe niyo iri ku mwanya wa mbere mu bunini.

Iyi nzu y’ibitabo ibitse ibitabo biri hagati ya miliyoni 170 na miliyoni 200.

Iyo urebye ukuntu abantu bo muri iki gihe bafata ibyuma bibikwaho amakuru nk’ibintu bisanzwe, ntiwatekeza ko hari igihe icyuma cyabaga gifite ubushobozi bwo kubikwaho amazina y’umuntu kikaba kiruzuye cyafatwaga nk’igitangaza, akataraboneka!

Mu minsi ya mbere yakurikiye ikorwa rya mudasobwa, icyuma cyari kigenewe kubikwaho amakuru cyari gito cyane k’uburyo cyari gifite umwanya ungana na 0.08KB.

Icyuma cya mbere cyakozwe muri icyo gihe kiswe Punch cards kikaba cyarakozwe mu mwaka wa 1890.

Kuri iki cyuma hajyagaho ijambo ritarengeje imigemo 80.

Nicyo cyuma cyakoreshwaga n’abahanga mu by’ikoranabuhanga kugira ngo bakore gahunda za mudasobwa mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20.

Mu mwaka wa 1932 hakozwe ikindi cyuma gifite ububiko bwisumbuyeho kiswe magnetic drum cyari gifite ubushobozi bwo kubika amakuru yajya ahantu hangana na 48KB.

Kuva kuri 0.08KB ukajya kuri 48KB ni intera yari itewe kandi ikomeye.

Ni umwanya munini kuko wari bujyeho nk’inyandiko zo mu bwoko bwa word nk’eshanu, ariko zitariho amafoto.

Drum memory ni icyuma cyavumbuwe n’umugabo witwa Gustav Tauschek mu mwaka wa 1932.

Ni igikoresho cyaje gutezwa imbere n’abasirikare b’Amerika.

Iki gikoresho cyakomeje gukoreshwa mu myaka ya 1950 n’iya 1960.

Nyuma y’iri koranabuhanga haje irindi ryiswe Williams-Kilburn Tube. Ni icyuma cyari gifite ubushobozi bwo kubika ibintu byajya ahantu hangana 0.128KB

Niryo ryabaye ikoranabuhanga rya mbere ryakozwe mu rwego rwiswe random access memory (RAM).

Naryo ariko ryari rito ugereranyije n’uko iby’ubu bingana kuko ritashoboraga kubika ifoto yo mu bwoko ba JPG.

Ryavumbuwe mu mwaka wa 1947 rikaba ryari igikoresho kirekire bihagije gishushe nk’itoroshi.

Muri iki gihe iki gikoresho ntiwapfa kukibona, cyaje guhita kivaho.

Gasete yakorewe mu Budage mu mwaka wa 1951.

Gasete iyi yaramamaye biratinda

Nyuma y’aho hadutse igikoresho cyamamaye cyane bita gasete. Icyo Abanyarwanda bise gasete abahanga mu ikoranabuhanga bakita magnetic tape drive.

N’ubwo muri iki gihe hari ubundi buryo bwo kubika amakuru menshi ariko za gasete ziracyakoreshwa kuko zibika amakuru kandi zikaba zidahenze.

Ifite ubushobozi bwo kubika inyandiko 10 zibitse mu buryo bwa PDF. Ni ahantu hangana na 230 KB.

Mu Rwanda gasete zarakoreshejwe cyane kuko wasangaga umuntu wese uguze radio bwa mbere yashakaga ijyamo gasete, akayigura agashyiramo gasete ifatiweho indirimbo z’Impala n’amabuye mashya ya National akamanuka agasozi agaterera akandi yumva umuziki akaza kugera iwe amabuye yashizemo umuriro, ubwo akarara atumvise amakuru cyangwa ikinamico!

Ikindi gikoresho cyakozwe ariko nticyamamare mu Rwanda ni  ikiswe Magnetic core.

Abahanga bo muri Kaminuza ya Massachusets Institute of Technology, MIT) nibo bagikoze .

Mu mwaka wa 1956 hakozwe icyuma bita Hard Disk Drive cya mbere cyari gifite ubushobozi bwa 3.750 KB ni ukuvuga 3GB.

Iki gikoresho n’ubu kiracyakoreshwa ndetse no mu Rwanda ariko cyongerewe ubunini bw’ahabikwa amakuru ariko ubugari bwacyo buragabanywa.

Cyakozwe bwa mbere n’ikigo IBM (International Business Machines) ariko nyuma haje gukorwa ikindi cyuma bifitanye isano kitwa SSD (Solid State Disc) cyashinzwe na Samsung.

Nyuma ya Hard Disk Drive mu mwaka wa 1967 ku isi hakozwe akandi kuma bita Floppy disc kageze mu no mu Rwanda gakoreshwa muri za Kaminuza ariko ntikahatinze cyane.

N’ubwo mu Rwanda hageze za Compact Disk( CD) nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu mwaka wa 1994, zageze ku isi bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 1982.

Za CD zatangiye kwamamara mu myaka ya 1982 zimaze gukorwa n’ibigo Sony na Phillips.

Compact Discs zaje zorohereza umuntu kuzitwara kandi zikajyaho amakuru menshi ugeraranyije n’ibindi byumba byazibanjirije.

Nizo zatumye umuziki wo muri ibi bihe wamamara cyane.

Mu mwaka wa 1994 nibwo hadutse ikitwa Zip Drive ariko nticyatinze cyane ku isi.

Umwaka wakurikiyeho havutse ikiswe Digital Video Disc( DVD) ifite ubushobozi bwo kubika amakuru yajya ahantu hangana na 1,460,000KB ni ukuvuga 1.4 GB.

DVD nayo yarakunzwe mu myaka yashize

Nacyo cyakozwe n’ibigo  Sony na Phillips.

DVD nazo zagize akamaro gakomeye mu gukwiza filimi hirya no hino ku isi. Umunyarwanda ufite byibura imyaka 30 y’amavuko azi uko yajyaga kugura CD na DVD ngo arebe filimi zitandukanye.

Mu mwaka wa 1999 abahanga bakoze akuma gato ko kubika mo amakuru k’uburyo ariko bavuga ko kabaye aka mbere mu gutwara amakuru menshi ku buso buto.

Muri iki gihe akuma bita SD Card gashobora gafite ahantu hanini ho kubika amakuru gafite ahantu hangana na 1 terabyte ni ukuvuga 1000 GB.

SD (Secure Digital) card yakozwe ku bufatanye bw’ibigo SanDisk, Panasonic na  Toshiba mu mwaka wa 1999.

Bidatinze bakoze akandi kuma bisa USB Flash Drive ifite ubushobozi bwo kubika 8,000KB.

Aka kuma karakoreshwa n’ubu

Akuma gafite ubushobozi bwo kubika ibintu byinshi kugeza ubu gashobora kubika ibintu byajya ahantu hangana na 2 terabyte.

USB Flash Drive yahimbwe n’Ikigo cyo muri Israel kitwa M-Systems mu mwaka wa 1999.

Mu mwaka wa 2003 hakozwe akandi kuma kitwa Blu-ray Optical Disc ikaba yari ifite ubushobozi bwa 25,000,000KB ni ukuvuga 25 GB.

Kakozwe na Sony iki kibaba ari ikigo cy’ikoranabuhanga kitwa Sony cy’Abanyamerika ariko gikorera mu Buyapani.

Ifite umwanya munini ifite ungana na 3.3 terabytes.

Nyuma haje kwaduka icyo bise Blu-ray optical disc ariko nayo ntiyamamaye cyane.

Muri iki gihe hariho ikoranabuhanga ryo kubikaho amakuru ridashobora kuzuzura.

Ni iryo bise Cloud Data Storage Unlimited.

Umwanya ushoboye kwishyura ngo bakubikire amakuru niwo baguha n’aho ubundi ntushira.

Ibyandikwa, ibiririmbwa, ibikinwa n’ibindi ibyo ari byo byose ushyize kuri murandasi ntizigera byuzura ngo ubure ahandi ubika ahubwo ushobora kuzabura cyangwa ugatinda kubona amafaranga yo kugura aho wabibika.

Kugeza ubu ibintu byose bimaze kubikwa mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga bibitswe ahantu hangana na 2,700,000,000,000,000,000 KB ni ukuvuga icyo abahanga mu ikoranabuhanga bita 2.7 zettabytes.

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