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Ghana: Igihugu cya Zahabu na Demukarasi

Yanditswe kuwa

Ghana ni igihugu gifite byinshi kihariye muri Afurika. Uretse kuba ari cyo gihugu cyabaye icya mbere muri Afurika cyabonye ubwigenge kibuharaniye muri 1957, nicyo gihugu cya mbere gicukura kinagurisha hanze Zahabu nyinshi. Ni umwanya cyasimbuyeho Afurika y’Epfo.

Kuri uyu wa Mbere taliki 07, Ukuboza, 2020 nibwo abaturage barenga miliyoni 17 bo muri Ghana bazindukiye mu matora y’Abadepite n’ay’Umukuru w’Igihugu.

Abagabo babiri bayahanganiyemo  kurusha abandi ni usanzwe ayobora Ghana witwa Nana Akuffo Ado na John Drahamani Mahama yasimbuye ku butegetsi.

Aba bagabo baherutse kumvikana ndetse babishyira no mu masezerano ko ibizava mu matora byose buri ruhande ruzabyemera ku nyungu z’abaturage. Ibi ni ibintu bitaba ahandi muri Afurika.

Kuva iki gihugu cyabona ubwigenge nta  na rimwe kigeze kivugwamo guhirikwa k’ubutegetsi cyangwa ngo hagire n’ababitegura bipfube.

Hari ibintu  bituma Ghana iba igihugu kihariye:

 

Reka duhere ku mateka ya  kera yayo:

Repubulika ya Ghana iri ahahoze ubwami bwa Ashanti, ubu bubaka bwari ubwoko bwategetse imyaka 300 ahari ubutaka bwa Ghana muri iki gihe.

Ubukungu bw’Ubwami bwa Ashanti bwari bushingiye cyane cyane kuri zahabu.

Ubwami bwa Ashanti bwari bukomeye k’uburyo bwahanganye n’ingabo z’Abongereza zashakaga kubwigarurira zibanza kubanesha mu ntambara ebyiri muri enye  barwanye.

Izi ntambara zarwanywe mu mpeza z’Ikinyejana cya 18, ubwo Abakoloni bashakaga kwigabanya ibihugu by’Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara.

Kubera ko ingabo za Ghana zari zikomeye kandi zifite abaturage bazishyigikiye kandi bunze ubumwe, zahanganye n’ingabo z’Abongereza biratinda ndetse ziza no kwica umwe mu bagaba bazo witwaga Charles McCarthy zimuca umutwe zirawutwara.

Igikanka cye nicyo umwami wa Ashanti yanyweragamo inzoga kugeza byibura muri 1824.

Umwami wa Ashanti witwaga Osei Tutu(1695-1717) yaje kwagura ubwami bwe afata igice kinini cy’ibihugu bimukikije kugeza ageze no mu kigobe cya Guinea gukora ku Nyanja y’Atlantica.

Ubwami bwa Ashanti bwatangaje Abazungu cyane cyane Abongereza k’uburyo abanyamateka babo nta bundi bwami bwo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara bigeze bandikaho ibitabo byinshi nk’Ubwami bwa Ashanti bamwe bita Asante.

Kubera ibigwi by’Ubwami bwa Ashanti, n’ubu abo mu bwoko bwa Ashanti baracyategekwa n’umwami, bose hamwe bakaba barenga miliyoni eshanu.

 Yageze kuba icyambu cy’abacakara…

Agace ka Ghana kitwa Cape Coast ubu kagizwe ahantu ndangamateka y’Isi kuko higeze kuba ihuriro ry’abacakara bacuruzwaga bavanywe mu bice by’Afurika yo mu nsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara.

Abacakara bakusanyirizwaga muri kariya gace kugira ngo bagurishwe n’Abazungu barimo abanya Portugal, abo muri Espagne n’abandi.

Abenshi mu Birabura bahagurishirizwaga bajyanwaga mu mirima y’ibisheke muri America y’Amajyepfo.

Agace ka Cape Coast gaherutse gusurwa n’uwahoze ari Perezida wa USA Bwana Barrack Obama.

Kariya gace kandi ubu kazwiho kuba ahantu heza hakorerwa uburobyi bugezweho, bukurura ba mukerarugendo.

 

Impirimbanyi ya mbere y’Ubwigenge ya mbere muri Afurika…

 Umugabo witwa Kwame Nkrumah niwe wabaye uwa mbere wahagurutse asaba abaturage be guhagurukana nawe bagaharanira ubwigenge bwabo bari baratswe n’Abongereza.

Umuhati wabo waje kubyara umusaruro muri 1957 ubwo bahabwaga ubwigenge.

Nkurumah amaze kurangiza manda ze yasimbuwe na Jerry Rawlings wabaye Perezida avuye mu ngabo zirwanira mu kirere, icyo gihe hari muri 1979. Aherutse gutabaruka.

N’ubwo muri 1981 yakoze ikintu bamwe bafashe nka coup d’état, Rawlings yashyizeho Itegeko nshinga n’ubu rigikurikizwa kandi ritarakorerwa ubugororangingo ubwo aribwo bwose.

Hari abavuga ko Itegeko Nshinga rya Ghana rihamye k’uburyo ari icyitegererezo cya Demukarasi irambye muri Afurika.

Ghana ishimirwa ko ifite urwego rw’ubucamanza rwigenga ku buryo busesuye.

Ikirangantego cya Ghana kivuga ko abaturage bayo bagomba kugira ubwigenge kandi bakabona ubutabera

Ubukungu bwa Ghana bwihagazeho…

Ghana  ni igihugu gikize ku mabuye y’agaciro ariko cyane cyane kuri Zahabu.

Muri iki gihe niyo ya mbere icukura ikanohereza zahabu nyinshi ku isoko mpuzamahanga kurusha ibindi bihugu by’Afurika.

Yakuye Afurika y’Epfo kuri uyu mwanya.

Ghana kandi ni iya kabiri muri Afurika mu gusarura no kohereza hanze igihingwa cya cacao gikorwamo chocola.

Ghana kandi icukura indi mabuye y’agaciro nka Diyama, Bauxite((Al(OH)3)   na Manganese (25Mn)

Kiriya gihugu gituwe n’abaturage barenga miliyoni 30, buri muturaga akaba abarirwa umusaruro mbumbe wa $ 2 220.

Ghana ni igihugu kandi cya mbere muri Afurika cyagize umuturage wacyo wayoboye Umuryango w’Abibumbye, uwo akaba ari Koffi Anan.

Uko abayoboye Ghana bakurikiranye kuva yabona ubwigenge:

1. 1960 – Kwame Nkrumah — Convention People’s Party

2. 1992 – Jerry Rawlings — Progressive Alliance

3. 1996 – Jerry Rawlings — National Democratic Congress (NDC)

4. 2000 – John Kufuor — New Patriotic Party (NPP)

5. 2004 – John Kufuor — NPP.

6. 2008 – John Atta Mills — NDC

7. 2012 – John Dramani Mahama — NDC

8. 2016 – Nana Akufo-Addo — NPP

 

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