Marcus Aurelius: Umwami w’Abami Wa Roma W’Umunyabwenge N’Ubumuntu Butangaje - Taarifa
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Marcus Aurelius: Umwami w’Abami Wa Roma W’Umunyabwenge N’Ubumuntu Butangaje

Yanditswe kuwa

Mu isi y’ubu n’iya kera habayeho abayobozi bafite imitekerereze itandukanye yatumye bafata ibyemezo bamwe bakibukirwaho kubera umwihariko wabyo.  Mu bwami bw’abami bw’Abaroma habayeho umwami w’abami wabaye intangarugero mu kuyobora neza ku kigero n’ubu kigitangaza abahanga mu mateka.

Ni Marcus Aurelius wabaye ho hagati y’umwaka wa 121-180 CE.

N’ubwo buri mwami w’abami wayoboye Abaromani yari afite umwihariko, ariko Marcus Aurelius we yari yihariye cyane cyane kubera ubwenge yagaragaje mu byemezo yafataga no mu buryo yabagaho.

Akiri umwana yabaye ibwami arerwa n’Umwami w’abami Hadrian (76 – 138 CE) nyuma arerwa na Antoninus Pius(86 – 161 CE).

Ibwami yahaboneye uburezi bwiza bushoboka kandi yigishwa byinshi birimo Ikigereki, Ikilatini, na Filozofiya.

Filozofiya yarayikunze, arayimenya imubera urumuri mu bikorwa bye byose.

Umwe mu bahanga mu mateka ya Roma ya kera witwa Cassius Dio (155 – 235 CE) yigeze kwandika ko Marcus yari afite imyitwarire iboneye, itarigeze igirwa n’undi munyabubasha ku rwego rwe mu mateka ya muntu.

Marcus Aurelius yari umuntu udafite igihagararo gikanganye ariko wiyubatsemo imbaraga z’umutima n’ubwenge zihambaye zo kwihanganira ibikomeye cyane cyane ibibazo yatewe n’urushako rubi.

Mu bubasha yari afite nk’umwami w’abami w’ubwami bwa Roma, Marcus yirinze kugira uwo ahutaza ngo amukatire urwo gupfa cyangwa amushyire mu bucakara bw’iteka.

Wa munyamateka twavuze haruguru avuga ko Marcus yarinze atabaruka atagize icyasha na gito mu mikorere ye.

Ahandi uyu mugabo yabereye uwihariye ni uko yari afite igitabo yandikagamo ibitekerezo bye, akakigendana.

Iki gitabo n’ubu kirahari kandi kirubahwa cyane.

Yacyise ‘Meditations’, mu Kinyarwanda twabigenekereza tukabyita ‘Ibitekerezo.’

Iyo usomye iki gitabo usanga uriya mwami w’abami yari afite ubushobozi bwo gukoresha ubumenyi yakuye mu masomo ya Filozofiya kugira ngo yicyahe, yiyime imikorere n’imyitwarire yari bumuheshe isura mbi bikagira ingaruka ku  bwami yayoboraga.

Filozofoya yakurikizaga yitwa Stoicism.

Uburyo yakoreshaga yicyaha ngo adateshuka, abahanga mu buzima bwo mu mutwe muri iki gihe babwita  cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Izi mbaraga yihinzemo zatumye aba umwami wubashwe haba mu bakomeye no mu boroheje.

Bivugwa ko ibyo yakoraga byose yabikoraga atarebye ingaruka bishobora kugira kuri we n’abamukikije gusa, ahubwo arebye n’izo bizagira ku isi yose.

Yari umuturage w’isi kurusha uko yari umutegetsi wa Roma yonyine.

Imitekerereze ye yatumye ashobora kwihanganira ibibazo bikomeye byabaga i Roma kubera benewabo bamuvangiraga, abagore be badashobotse, intambara Roma yagombaga kurwana ndetse, by’umwihariko, n’uburwayi bwamugeraga ho kenshi.

Mu gitabo Historia Augustus haranditse hati: ‘Mu bami bose babanjirije Marcus ntawigeze agira umutima wo kwihangana no gutekereza mu buryo buboneye nkawe. Mu bizazane byose yaciyemo yagize imyitwarire buri muyobozi wese yashima.”

Byanditse kuri paji ya 72 muri kiriya gitabo.

Yari umuhanga muri filozofiya kandi akaba n’umwami w’abami w’ubwami bwategeka isi yo mu gihe cye.

Ubutabera bwamuranze

Marcus Aurelius yashoboye guteza imbere abaturage be, abarinda ibyago byari butume ubwami bucikamo ibice, kandi ubwami bucitsemo ibice buba byahenutse!

Igitabo Historia Augusta kivuga ko uyu mwami w’abami yari azi gushyira mu gaciro k’uburyo n’abaciriritse mu bwami bwe bamwisangagaho.

Mu biganiro yagiranaga nabo yabibutsaga akamaro ko kwicisha bugufi no guhora umuntu aharanira gukora ibyiza.

Bisa n’aho yari azi ibyo Yezu Kristu yigeze kwigisha intumwa ze ubwo yazibwira ko ‘ushaka kuba ukomeye muri bo agomba kuba umukozi w’abandi’.

Abasomyi ba Taarifa baribuka ibyanditse mu mavanjiri ubwo Yezu yafataga umwana muto akamushyira hagati y’intumwa ze, akazibwira ko ushaka kuba umukuru mu bandi agomba kumera nk’umwana.

Aurelius yari azi gukorana n’inzego z’ubwami bwe k’uburyo nta na rumwe yagonganaga narwo.

Umusirikare wakoraga ibibi yamuhanaga yabanje kumuganiriza, ariko uwakoze ibyiza akamushimira mu bandi

Ubwo abarwanyi b’Abajerimanike( Germanic tribes) bateraga ubwami bwe baturutse mu Majyaruguru,  Marcus yafashe umwanzuro werekana ko yakundaga abaturage be ku rwego rudasanzwe.

Mu gihe ubwami bwari bucyeneye amafaranga n’ibindi bikoresho ngo ingabo zabwo zihangane na bariya barwanyi, aho kugira ngo Marcus Aurelius azamure imisoro mu baturage yafashe imwe mu mitungo ye arayigurisha amafaranga avuyemo ayashyira mu kigega cy’ubwami.

Mu gutanga ubutabera hari ubwo yahitagamo kudakurikiza amategeko yanditse kubera ko yasangaga hari aho arengera!

Mu mitekerereze ye, yari azi ko akamaro k’igihano atari ukubabaza ugihawe cyangwa kumwumvisha, ahubwo akamaro k’igihano ari ukugorora no guha umuntu amahirwe yo kwisubiraho akabana n’abandi amahoro.

Mu mitegekere ye, yari azi no guha abantu ubwisanzure bakinigura bakavuga akabari ku mutima.

Yakunze filozofiya akiri muto cyane, arayiga biratinda.

Afite imyaka 12 yatangiye kujya yambara imyambaro yari umwihariko ku bahanga muri filozofiya.

Yize kwihanganira imibereho igoye k’uburyo n’ubwo yari igikomangoma yakundaga kwiryamira ku misambi.

Nyina byaramubabazaga rimwe na rimwe akamucyaha, umwana Marcus Aurelius akamwubaha akaryama mu buriri bugenewe igikomangoma

Yabaye umugaba w’ikirenga w’ingabo za Roma, ziramukunda cyane.

Niwe wari uziyoboye ku rugamba ubwo zarwanaga mu Majyaruguru ya Roma zihanganye n’Abajerimanike.

Marcus Aurelius yaje kurwara araremba ndetse indwara iramuhitana.

Ubwo inkuru yageraga ku basirikare be mu bigo, bakumva ko umwami w’abami bakundaga cyane arwaye kandi arembye, bavugije induru barataka cyane kubera urukundo bamukundaga.

Ku gitanda aho yari aryamye mbere y’uko umwuka umushiramo, yabwiye abari aho ati: “ Ndabasabye murekere aho kundirira, ahubwo mutekereze ku bandi barwaye kandi nabo bugarijwe n’urupfu.”

Ikindi cyerekana ko Marcus yari yihariye ni uko nyuma y’urupfu rwe, ubwami bw’abami bwa Roma bwatangiye guhirima.

Muri macye aya ni amateka y’umwami w’abami mu Bwami bwa Roma wabaye umuyobozi w’umunyabwenge kurusha benshi bamubanjirije n’abamukurikiye.

Mu gitabo cye yise Meditations harimo ubwenge butandukanye ndetse bwifashishwa n’abajenerali mu kuyobora ingabo.

Umwe mu bakomeye wize kandi agakurikiza imigirire ya Marcus Aurelius ni Gen James Mattis.

Uyu mugabo wayoboye ingabo z’Amerika muri Iraq no muri Afghanistan, akaba  n’Umunyamabanga wa Amerika ushinzwe ingabo ku butegetsi bwa Donald Trump yanditse igitabo yise ‘Call Sign Chaos’.

Muri paji z’iki gitabo hari aho avuga ko Marcus Aurelius yamwigishije ko  umugaba w’ingabo mwiza ari ubana nazo mu bihe bikomeye kurusha ibindi, ntazitererane.

Mattis avuga ko umusirikare mwiza kandi ari ukunda gusoma ibitabo by’amateka y’intambara, akamenya amayeri ya gisirikare kandi akamenya aho abasirikare batandukanira n’abasivili mu mitekerereze n’imyitwarire  cyane cyane mu gihe cy’intambara.

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