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Menya Icyo Ibigo 18 By’Ubutasi Bw’Amerika Ku Isi Bishinzwe

Yanditswe kuwa

Nk’igihugu cy’igihangange kurusha ibindi ku isi, Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika zashyizeho ibigo 18 bikomeye bishinzwe gushaka, gukusanya, gusesengura no guha Komite ya Sena amakuru yayifashwa mu kurinda  inyungu zayo ku isi hose.

Ibigo byose uko ari 18 biyoborwa n’Ibiro byitwa Office of The Director of National Intelligence ndetse na Central Intelligence Agency, iki kigo kikagira umwihariko wo guhabwa amakuru yose arebana n’abanzi cyangwa abakunzi ba USA baba hanze yayo.

Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko hari ibigo byinshi bishinzwe ubutasi imbere muri USA n’ibindi byinshi bibushinzwe hanze yayo.

Ibyo bigo ni ibi bikurikira:

Air Force Intelligence:

Iki kigo gishinzwe gukoresha ibikoresho byose by’ikoranabuhanga rigezweho mu gufata amashusho cyangwa amajwi bikozwe na satellites cyangwa ibindi byuma birimo n’indege, aya mashusho agasesengurwa kugira ngo atange amakuru y’ibibera ku isi afatiwe mu kirere.

Amakuru akusanywa muri ubu buryo niyo afasha abasirikare bakuru mu gisirikare cya USA kirwanira mu kirere gufata ibyemezo bigamije kwikiza abanzi hakoreshejwe indege zitwarwa n’abapilote batazirimo.

Ni amakuru abafasha kureba niba ikintu runaka bikanga ari ikintu kiyega( moveable) cyangwa kitayega( non moveable), bigatuma hamenyekana igikoresho cyakoreshwa mu kigizayo.

Abakora muri iri shami ry’ubutasi bwa gisirikare bagize uruhare runini mu gucunga ingendo za Gen Kassem Suleiman warashwe missile ari ku kibuga cy’indege cya Baghdad muri Irak.

Nibo baha amakuru abasirikare n’abasivili bakorana n’ingabo za USA zirwanira mu kirere babarirwa mu bantu 50 000.

Army Intelligence:

Ni urwego rushinzwe ubutasi bwa gisirikare muri rusange. Barwita G-2. Rushinzwe gushyiraho Politiki za gisirikare, gutunganya uko zizashyirwa mu bikorwa, kuzigenera ingengo y’imari, kugenzura  uko zishyirwa mu bikorwa n’ibindi.

Uru rwego rushinzwe guhuza ibikorwa mu gisirikare birimo amashusho afatwa mu nyungu za gisirikare, ibimenyetso byihariye biha abasirikare amakuru, kumenya abantu n’imico yabo( human intelligence), kumenya gusesengura inyandiko n’imikono y’abantu no gukumira ibikorwa by’iterabwoba byatahuwe.

Central Intelligence Agency:

Iki kigo gishinzwe gukusanya amakuru avanwa mu mahanga kikayasesengura nyuma kigaha raporo abanyapolitiki nabo bakayiheraho bafata ingamba zigamije kurengera inyungu za USA n’iz’inshuti zayo.

Kubera akamaro k’iki kigo, byabaye ngombwa ko ukiyobora ashyirwaho na Perezida w’Amerika ariko akemezwa na Sena.

Umuyobozi wa CIA afite inshingano zo gukurikiranira hafi ibikorwa ikorera hose ku isi, akemeza ingengo yayo y’imari ndetse n’imibereho y’abakorera ruriya rwego.

Ni urwego rukomeye k’uburyo rufite amashami arindwi ashinzwe ibikorwa bitandukanye:

-Ishami rishinzwe gusesengura amakuru,

-Ishami rishinzwe ibikorwa(operations)

-Ishami rishinzwe siyansi n’ikoranabuhanga,

-Ishami rishinzwe gutanga umusada,

-Ishami rishinzwe guhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga,

-Ishami rishinzwe kwita ku biro bya CIA aho biri hose,

-Ishami rishinzwe gucunga uko andi mashami ya CIA asohoza inshingano zayo.

Abakorera iki kigo bafite inshingano zo kutagira amakuru na make batesha agaciro iyo areba ubuzima bwa USA.

 

Coast Guard Intelligence:

Uru rwego rwahawe inshingano zo kumenya umwanzi uwo ari we wese akoresha inzira y’amazi akaza guhungabanya umutekano wa USA. Rushinzwe no kurinda amazi ari mu yo USA yita ayayo. Kurinda amazi bivuze no kurinda urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima biyarimo, rukarindwa ba rushimusi.

Amakuru abakora muri uru rwego batanga afasha abashinzwe umutekano wo mu mazi kuba batabara igihe cyose byaba ngombwa kugira ngo umwanzi wa USA n’wu’umutungo wayo adashobora kuvogera amazi yayo.

Defense Intelligence Agency:

Ni ikigo cy’abasirikare n’abasivili bashinzwe gufasha ingabo za USA zoherejwe mu mahanga mu kazi kugira ngo zibone amakuru, ubumenyi n’ibikoresho zikeneye kugira ngo zirangize icyazijya yo.

Amakuru gitanga afasha abayobozi b’ingabo gutanga amabwiriza akenewe kugira ngo ingabo za USA zikore akazi kazo bityo ziheshe ishema ubuhangange bw’Amerika ku isi hose.

Umuyobozi w’iki kigo niwe uba ari umujyanama mukuru w’Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe ingabo hamwe n’Umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za USA, akabaha inama z’ibyo bakora mu bihe bitandukanye kandi ku banzi ba USA batandukanye.

Niwe kandi uyobora Inama nkuru y’umutekano yitwa Military Intelligence Board.

Department of Energy:

Ni urwego rushinzwe gukurikirana inyungu za USA ku isi hose zirekeye aho ifite inganda cyangwa ibigo byo gucukura gutunganya no kugurisha ingufu runaka(izikomoka ku mazi, ku izuba, ku bushyuhe bwo mu nda y’isi, ku muyaga n’ibindi). USA ifite ibigo bishinzwe aka kazi bigera kuri 30 ku isi hose.

Indi nshingano y’iki kigo ni ukwiga niba nta bandi bahanga bafite ubundi buhanga USA idafite k’uburyo bakwifashishwa ikabagira abayo nayo ikabona kuri ubwo buhanga.

Iki kigo nicyo kijya gishakisha abahanga mu by’ubutabire, ubugenge cyangwa ibindi bintu bihariyemo ubwo buhanaga kikabagura bakaza gukora mu nyungu za USA cyane cyane izirebana n’iby’inganda.

Department of Homeland Security:

Iyo amakuru yose amaze gukusanywa haba imbere cyangwa hanze y’Amerika, ashyikirizwa ikigo kitwa Department of Homeland Security kigayiga hanyuma kigatangira gutegura uko ibintu biramutse bigenze nabi mu gihe kiri imbere USA yazabyitwaramo.

Ikirangantego cya Homeland Security

Iki kigo uwashaka yakita ‘nyamutegerakazazejo’ ariko mu rwego rw’umutekano.

Nyuma yo kubona no gusesengura aya makuru yose, abakozi b’uru rwego bayasangiza bagenzi babo bakora mu bindi bigo kugira ngo habeho guhuza ingamba.

Department of State:

Muri uru rwego abahakora baba bagomba kumenya ibibera ku isi, haba muri Politiki, mu bukungu, mu gisirikare n’ahandi hagamijwe kubiha Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe ububanyi n’amahanga kugira ngo amenye uko inyungu za USA zibungabunzwe, aho zugarijwe n’icyakorwa.

Ahabwa kandi amakuru yerekana uko inshuti za USA zibayeho, abanzi bazo n’inshuti zazo, ibyo ubwo bucuti cyangwa urwango bishingiyeho n’ibindi.

Abahakora bagomba kumenya amakuru atangwa n’intiti mu mibanire ya politiki, amateka, amategeko n’ibindi hagamijwe kumenya ibyaranze imibereho y’abatuye ibihugu bifitanye ubucuti na USA cyangwa ibyigeze kubugirana nayo ndetse n’ibyo iteganya kubugirana nabyo mu gihe cya vuba cyangwa kiri imbere cyane.

Intego y’ibi ni ukugira ngo politiki mpuzamahanga ya USA irindwe gufatwa ihubukiwe.

Department of Treasury:

Iki ni ikigega cya Leta. Ni urwego rushinzwe gukurikiranira hafi politiki z’ifaranga, rukarinda idolari ko ryahungabanywa n’andi mafaranga kandi rukarinda ko hari abantu bakoresha amayeri bagamije kugusha ubukungu bwa USA. Ni urwego kandi rushinzwe kurinda ko Amerika yaba indiri y’abacuruza ibiyobyabwenge, abacuruza magendu n’abandi bakora ibyaha bimunga ubukungu.

Drug Enforcement Administration

Ni urwego rwahawe amabwiriza yo guhangana n’abacuruza ibiyobyabwenge. Rufite amabwiriza yo gufasha ibindi bigo byo mu bihugu by’inshuti guhangana n’abacuruza ibiyobyabwenge, ibi rukabikora mu rwego rwo kurwanyiriza ikibi kure  ya USA. Abanyamerika bakora uko bashoboye ikibi cyangwa umwanzi wabo bakamurwanyiriza kure y’imipaka yabo.

Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI)

Ni urwego rukora nka Polisi ya USA. Rushinzwe gutahura abagizi ba nabi, amayeri yabo, ibikoresho bafite…rukabacengera rukabata muri yombi. Iyo baruciye mu rihumye bagakora ibara, rushinzwe kubahiga rukabafata, icyo byasaba cyose.

FBI igomba gukora k’uburyo itari bwivange mu nshingano z’izindi nzego z’iperereza n’ubwo bwose hari ubwo byigeze kugongana ubwo FBI yananirwaga kumenya ko hari abasore bari baroherejwe na Osama Bin Laden ngo bigire indege muri USA bagamije kuzakoresha mu bitero bayiteganyagaho.

CIA yabwiraga FBI ko bariya basore bahari ndetse ikayigira inama yo kubikoraho raporo ikayiha Komite ya Sena ishinzwe ubutasi, ariko FBI ikabura ibihamya bifatika yaheraho.

FBI

Ikindi ni uko bariya basore bari bafite passports z’Amerika kandi batuye mu ngo z’Abanyamerika bikayigora kugira ku mwanzuro wa nyuma.

Uku guhuzagurika niko kwatumye bariya basore biga barangiza amasomo yabo, ubumenyi batahanye buza gukora ishyano tariki 11, Nzeri , 2001.

Marine Corps Intelligence:

Abagize uyu mutwe bo  ni abasirikare b’umwuga. Bashinzwe kumenya ikibuga ingabo za USA zirwanira ku butaka ziriho mu rugamba n’umwanzi runaka. Amakuru babona bayasangiza abagaba b’ingabo zirwanira ku butaka kugira ngo  basesengure uko aho urugamba rwahinaniye hateye bityo nabo bashobore gufata ibyemezo bituma abasirikare ba USA batahagwa ari benshi kandi bagatsinda urugamba.

National Geo-Spatial Intelligence Agency

Ibikoresho by’ibanze by’abakozi b’uru rwego ni ibyogajuru na mudasobwa. Ibyogajuru byabo biba bigomba kumenya uko ikirere cy’isi yose giteye, bakamenya aho izindi satellites z’aba iza gisivili n’iza gisirikare ziherereye, ubushobozi bwazo n’igihe zizahamara.

Nyuma yo kumenya uko ikirere kimeze, abakorera kiriya kigo baba bagomba kumenya n’uko ibigo bya gisirikare byo mu bihugu hafi ya byose by’isi biteye, aho biherereye, aho bibika intwaro, ubwoko bwazo n’ibindi.

Aya makuru yose aba ashobora kwifashishwa mu gihe USA ishaka kugaba igitero simusiga ku kigo runaka.

The National Reconnaissance Office

Abakora muri uru rwego bazindukira, bakirirwa kandi bakarara mu kazi ko gushushanya, gukora no guha gahunda ibyogajuru. Ibyogajuru bakora biba bigenewe kuzakoreshwa n’ibigo byose bifite aho bihuriye n’ubutasi bwa USA. Gukora muri iki kigo bigirira akamaro USA kuko bituma ibona ibikoresho bikomeye kandi bigezweho yifashisha mu kureba isi yose nk’uko igisiga cya kagoma kireba kure bitakigoye.

National Security Agency/Central Security Service

Iki kigo cyo ni laboratwari y’ikoranabuhanga ishinzwe kureba uko ibihugu by’amahanga bikora porogaramu za mudasobwa cyangwa iz’ikoranabuhanga zishobora gukoma mu nkokora gahunda z’ibikorwa bya USA.

Iki kigo kandi kigira ishami ry’abahanga mu ndimi baba bagomba gusesengura indimi z’amahanga zishobora kwifashishwa n’abafite umugambi wo guhemukira USA bibwira ko ntawe uzi ururimi bari kuwuteguramo.

Ni kimwe mu bigo byashinzwe kera kuko cyashinzwe muri 1952.

Abandi bakora muri iki kigo ni abahanga mu bugenge, abahanga mu mibare, abahanga muri mudasobwa, abahanga mu ndimi, abahanga mu by’amadini, abahanga mu mibanire y’abantu, mu bucuruzi, mu ibarurishamibare n’abandi benshi mu ngeri nyinshi.

Mu gihe ibindi bigo twabigereranya n’izindi ngingo z’umubiri w’umuntu, NSA yo yagereranywa n’ubwoko bwabyo

 Navy Intelligence

Ni urwego rw’ubutasi bwa USA narwo rushinzwe ibikorwa bya gisirikare ariko byibanda cyane ku kurinda inkombe z’amazi ya USA. Rukorwamo n’abasirikare cyangwa abasivili bashinzwe ibikorwa bya gisirikare birimo kuburizamo cyangwa kugaba ibitero binyuze mu mazi.

Abakora muri uru rwego bajya batumwa gukorera akazi mu bindi bihugu.

 Space Force Intelligence

Uru rwego nirwo rukiri ruto mu zindi zose. Rwashinzwe mu Ukuboza, 2019 nyuma gato yo gushingwa kw’ishami ry’ingabo za USA zishinzwe isanzure, ryiswe U.S Space Force.

Inshingano zarwo ni ukubarura ibyogajuru byose biri mu kirere, ibihugu byabikoze, ikoranabuhanga bikoranywe no kumenya neza ko nta cyogajuru gihiga USA mu buhanga. Ni  ishami kandi rishinzwe kurinda ibindi byuma by’ikoranabuhanga bya USA cyangwa inshuti zayo biri mu kirere haba ku kwezi, muri Mars n’ahandi.

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