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Utuntu n'Utundi

Ubukerarugendo Bwahoze Kandi Buzahora Ari Ubw’Abajijutse Kandi Bifite

Yanditswe kuwa

Abanyarwanda baca umugani uvuga ko ‘ikirima ari ikiri mu nda’ kandi ngo ‘amagara aramirwa ntamerwa’. Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko amafunguro umuntu yafashe ari yo amuha ibyishimo n’imbaraga bimutuma aba uko tumubona inyuma. Ku byerekeye gukora ubukerarugendo rero, nabyo ni uko!

Kugira ngo Umunyarwanda afate amafaranga ajye gusura Pariki y’Akagera cyangwa Pariki y’Ibirunga bisaba ko aba hari icyo asize imuhira, kizamufasha agarutse kuko iyo uvuye mu rugendo nka ruriya, akenshi nta faranga rifatika ugarura.

Ese ubundi ubukerarugendo ni iki? Ni akahe kamaro kabwo? Twibukiranye amateka yabwo, aho bwatangiriye, aho bugeze  n’uko bihagaze muri iki gihe.

Ijambo ‘ubukerarugendo’ ntiritandukanywa n’ijambo ‘amahoteli’. Uzumva bavuga ngo runaka yiga mu ‘Ishami ry’Ubukerarugendo n’Amahoteli’

Iri jambo ‘amahoteli’ niryo abiga ibijyanye nabyo bita ‘hospitality.’

Hari igitabo kitwa Discovery Hospitality cyanditswe mu mwaka wa 2015 kivuga ko iri jambo risobanura ‘gufasha abantu kuruhuka, bakumva bahawe ikaze ahantu hatari iwabo’ (Discover Hospitality, 2015, 3).

Bivuze ko umuntu uri mu bukerarugendo, aba agomba kubona ahantu arara, akahafatira icyo kurya n’icyo kunywa, mbese ntagire icyo abura mu byifuzo bye.

Ku isi Abashinwa nibo bakora ubukerarugendo ari benshi kurusha abandi mu gihe mu Burayi, Abongereza ari bo ba mbere

Tugarutse kucyo twatangiriyeho, aha birumvikana ko ibyo ahererwa hariya hantu, byose abyishyura kandi iyi fagitire ‘ntiyakwishyurwa n’umuntu usanzwe yikopesha umunyu.’

Bisaba ko aba yifite kandi akaba yariteguye bihagije kugira ngo azajye kureba ibyo amaso ye atigeze abona n’amatwi ye akumva ibyo atigeze yumva( urugero amajwi y’inyamaswa muri pariki…).

Amateka y’ubukerarugendo nk’uko tubuzi muri iki gihe

Iyo urebye mu bitabo by’inkusanyabumenyi( Encyclopedias) usanga ubukerarugendo bwaratangiye kera cyane ariko butangira kugira isura isa n’iyo tuzi ubu mu gihe cy’Ubwami bw’Abami bw’Abaroma.

Guhera muri kiriya gihe cy’Ubwami Bw’Abami bw’Abaroma(24BC-476AD) kugeza mu ntangiriro z’Ikinyejana cya 17 Nyuma ya Yezu Kristu, urubyiruko rwo mu miryango yifashije nirwo rwashishikarizwaga gutembera u Burayi ‘kugira ngo rurebe uko abandi babayeho.’

Bigeze mu gihe abanyamateka bita ‘Igihe Rwagati’( Middle-Ages, Moyen-Ages), hari hantu henshi ku isi cyane cyane mu bihugu byari bituwe n’abaturage bayobotse amadini nka Islam na Kiliziya Gatulika bakundaga kujya gusura Ahantu Hatagatifu, ibyo bitaga Ingendo ntagatifu( pilgrinages).

Aha ariko, twabamenyesha ko ijambo ‘hospitality’cyangwa amacumbi ryaje mbere y’ubukerarugendo kuko ryo ryatangiye gukoreshwa mu Kinyejana cya 14 Nyuma ya Yezu Kristu.

Rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Ikilatini ryitwa hospes, riganisha k’umucumbitsi, umugenzi, umushyitsi.

Umuhanga witwa Griffiths avuga ko ijambo ‘ubukerarugendo’ nk’uko risobanurwa muri iki gihe, ryatangiye gukoreshwa henshi mu Burayi mu mwaka wa 1772 rwagati.

Tourism( ubukerarugendo), ni ijambo ry’inyunge rihuje ‘tour’ ry’Ikigereki rivuga kuzenguruka n’ijambo circle ry’Ikilatini, byombi bihuzwa bikavuga gukorera urugendo kure y’iwanyu cyangwa y’iwawe ariko ukazagaruka.

Hari igitabo kivuga ko ikigo cya mbere cyatangiye gutanga serivisi z’ubukerarugendo mu buryo bwa kinyamwuga ku isi ari icyo mu Bwongereza kiswe Cox & Kings, iki kigo kikaba cyari icy’ingabo z’Abongereza.

Nyuma y’imyaka 100, ni ukuvuga mu mwaka wa 1841, umugabo witwa Thomas Cook yatangije ikigo cy’ingendo za ba mukerarugendo b’Abongereza, bikaba byari mu rwego rwo kubafasha kumenya uko ahandi ku isi babayeho.

Igitabo kivuga amateka ya Thomas Cook cyo mu mwaka wa 2014 kivuga ko  mu mwaka wa 1845 ari bwo yatangiye kujya aha abakiliya tike bitwaza mu rugendo n’ababayobora( aba guides).

Thomas Cook

Gari ya moshi niyo yakoreshwaga mu ngendo za ba mukerarugendo.

Gutembera bakagera kure nibyo byatumye umugore w’umugabo wakoze imodoka zaje kwitwa Mercedes Benz(uyu mugabo yitwaga Karl Benz) amenyekanisha ziriya modoka henshi mu Burayi.

Hari mu mwaka wa 1886.

Rwagati mu kinyejana cya 20 ni ukuvuga mu mwaka wa 1952 nibwo indege zatangiye kugurukana ba mukerarugendo bava i Londres mu Bwongereza bajya Johannesburg muri Afurika y’Epfo n’i Colombo muri Sri Lanka.

Aha rero niho ubukererugendo bwambuka imigabane y’isi bwatangiriye mu buryo butaziguye.

Mu mwaka wa 1950 nibwo hubatswe akabyiniro kahuzaga abaturutse i Burayi, Aziya n’Afurika kiswe Club Méditérannée.

Aka ni ko kabyiniro kabimburiye utundi tugezwemo muri iki gihe.

Imyaka yakurikiyeho yatumye urwego rw’ubukerarugendo rurushaho kwaguka, haba ubukorerwa imbere mu bihugu ndetse n’ubwambukiranya imipaka.

Kubera ko kugira ngo umuntu abe mukerarugendo bisaba ko aba yarangije guhaza ibindi byifuzo bye, iyo ahuye n’akaga nk’intambara, ubukerarugendo bwe buba buhagaze.

Ni ko byagenze mu Ntambara ya Mbere n’iya Kabiri z’Isi.

Ni ko byagenze kandi mu Burayi ubwo hadukaga inzara n’ubukene bukabije bwakurikiye Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi, igihe cy’Akanda cyagoye Abanyaburayi cyane.

Iki gihe bise  Great Depression cyatangiye muri Kanama, 1929 kigeza muri Werurwe,1933.

Ubwo Abanyamerika bagabwagaho igitero cy’indege tariki 11, Nzeri, 2001 , isi yose yarakangaranye bituma ubukerarugendo busa n’ubuhagaze cyane cyane ko biriya bitero byari byagabwe hifashishijwe indege.

Indwara z’ibyorezo ( ikiri ku isonga ni COVID-19) nabyo byahagaritse ubuzima bw’abatuye isi, bituma bahitamo kuramira amagara yabo bakoresheje amafaranga bari barazigamiye ingendo.

Murandasi yafashije abantu gukomeza kumenya uko ahandi babayeho bitabaye ngombwa ko bajyayo ariko muri rusange ntiyasimbuye ibyifuzo by’abifite byo ‘kujya kureba aho bweze.’

Abanyarwanda baca umugani ngo ‘akanyoni katagurutse ntikamenya iyo bweze’, kandi ngo ‘Utajya ibwami abeshywa byinshi.’

Ubukerarugendo bufasha abantu basanzwe bifite kumenya uko bagenzi babo( b’abakire) babayeho ndetse n’uko n’abakene b’ahandi babayeho.

Amafaranga bishyura niyo za Leta zikoresha mu kuzamura urwego rw’ubukerarugendo ndetse no gufasha abakene baturiye za pariki kuzamura imibereho yabo.

Ubukerarugendo mu Rwanda bufasha mu kuzamura imibereho y’abaturage

Ibi u Rwanda rubifitemo amanota meza kuko amafaranga rukura mu basura pariki zarwo, akoreshwa mu gufasha abazituriye kuba aheza no kugira imishinga ibavana gahoro gahoro mu bukene.

Akamaro k’ubukerarugendo mu by’ubukungu ni uko bwinjiza amafaranga mu isanduku ya Leta.

Ikibabaje ni uko hari bamwe mu bakozi ba Leta bayirira, rubanda rukaguma mu bwigunge!

Raporo y’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe ubukerarugendo, UNWTO yo mu mwaka wa  2011 yerekanye ko muri uriya mwaka ubukerarugendo bwinjirije za Leta Miliyari 1000$ ni ukuvuga Tiriyari imwe$.

Ni amafaranga yari menshi kuko muri kiriya gihe, isi yari ivuye mu bibazo by’ubukungu bwatewe n’uko za Banki zo muri Amerika zari zarahombejwe n’abo zagurije ngo bubake amacumbi, akabura abapangayi nabo bakabura ubwishyu.

Akamaro k’ubukerarugendo mu mibanire y’abantu n’abandi ni uko bufasha  mu kubagara ubucuti hagati y’abantu badasangiye umuco.

Ubu bucuti bushobora kuba imbarutso y’umubano urambye.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, ubukerarugendo bushobora gutuma bamwe batakaza indangagaciro zabo bakayoboka iz’abandi kandi zitabubaka.

Hari na  ba mukerarugendo baba batagenzwa na kamwe, ahubwo batembera bagamije ubusambanyi no gushaka abakobwa cyangwa abahungu bo kugurisha ku nkozi z’ibibi zibagurira kuri murandasi.

Ubukerarugendo iyo budacunzwe neza, buba intandaro yo kwangiza ibidukikije, abakire bishyuye ayabo bakajugunya amacupa ya palasitiki mu nzuzi, imigezi n’inyanja kandi ariya macupa yangiza urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima.

Ba mukerarugendo bangiza ibidukikije bitwaje ko bishyuye amadolari

Aba bakire bangiza ibidukikije bitwaje ko bishyuye ayabo.

Muri rusange, ubukerarugendo ni ubundi buryo bwihariye bw’imibereho y’abakire.

Ni uburyo bufasha abakire( n’abantu bize) kwihugenza ibibazo bahura nabyo, bakajya kuruhuka no kureba ibyiza amaso y’abakene atazigera abona imbonankubone.

 

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