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Umutekano Muke Muri Tchad Uzagira Izihe Ngaruka?

Yanditswe kuwa

Tchad ni igihugu kihagazeho muri byinshi ariko cyane cyane ku gisirikare. Kuba giherutse gupfusha Umukuru w’Igihugu ni ibyago bigikomereye ariko bitazabura kugira ingaruka ku karere iherereyemo.

Iki gihugu gisanzwe gifite uruhare runini mu guhangana n’imitwe y’abarwanyi bakora iterabwoba mu gace ka Afurika bita Sahel.

Tchad iramutse ihuye n’ibibazo birambye bya Politiki byaha urwaho bariya barwanyi rwo gukomeza kwigarurira ibice byinshi bya kariya karere.

Abarwanyi b’aba Djihadist bari basanzwe muri kariya karere basaga n’abari baratinye Tchad kuko kuva batangiza imirwano mu bindi bihugu biri muri Sahel ntibari barigeze bahakandagiza ikirenge.

Mu buryo busa n’ubwatunguye inzego z’umutekano za Tchad, mu minsi mike yakurikiye amatora y’Umukuru w’igihugu nibwo bariya barwanyi bambutse umupaka wa Libya bagana muri Tchad.

Ubwo Perezida Deby yakomeretswa n’amasasu bikamuviramo urupfu yari yasanze abasirikare be mu gace ka Kanem aho bahatanaga na bariya barwanyi ngo bababuze kwegera N’Djamena.

Yari yagiye kubatera akanyabugabo.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwe, abasirikare bakuru bayobowe n’umuhungu we witwa Gen Mahamat Idriss Deby bashyizeho inzibacyuho iyobowe n’Inama nkuru ya gisirikare.

Iyi Nama nkuru yiyemeje kuzayobora Tchad mu gihe cy’amezi 18.

Ntibiragaragara niba bariya basirikare bazashobora kwigizayo za nyeshyamba hanyuma bakagarura umutuzo mu gihugu cyangwa bizabananira igihugu kikaba isibaniro.

Ingabo za Tchad nizo ngabo z’intarumikwa mu gace  iherereyemo kandi zari zisanzwe zizwiho uruhare runini mu gukumira imitwe y’inyeshyamba yayogoje akarere ka Sahel.

Ubu rero zifite akazi katoroshye ko kugarura umutekano mu gihugu imbere bitaba ibyo abarwanyi bashamikiye kuri Al Qaeda bakagira Tchad n’agace iherereyemo akaduruvayo.

Ikindi ni uko Tchad isanganywe ingabo ziri mu butumwa bwa UN bwo kugarura amahoro muri Mali mu mutwe w’ingabo wiswe Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

Ifite yo abasirikare 1,400.

Tariki 16, Gashyantare, 2021 yiyemeje kuzoherezayo abandi 1, 200.

 Ingabo z’iki gihugu zari zimaze imyaka myinshi zikubita inshuro abarwanyi bo mu mutwe witwa Jama’at Nusrat al Islam wa al Muslimeen (JNIM).

Umuyobozi wawo witwa  Iyad ag Ghaly yavuze ko Tchad ari igihugu abarwanyi be bafitiye inzika, icyo gihe hari muri 2017.

Muri 2019 abarwanyi b’uriya mutwe bishe abasirikare ba Tchad 10 bari baragiye kugarura amahoro  muri Mali.

Bigambye ko babishe kubera ko Tchad yari imaze igihe gito inogeje amasezerano y’ubufatanye na Israel

Urubuga rwitwa CriticalTreats.org ruvuga ko kuba abarwanyi basanzwe barashinze ibirindiro muri Burkina Faso na Mali, none bakaba barangamiye na Tchad ari ikibazo gikomeye kireba akarere kose ka Sahel.

Ikindi ni uko abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari mu mutwe wa Barkhane bafite ikicaro gikuru i N’Djamena.

Ibi bivuze ko Tchad iramutse itabonye amahoro arambye, umuhati w’u Bufaransa muri kariya gace wahura n’inzitizi.

Kuba iki gihugu gisanzwe gituranye na Nigeria nayo ikaba itorohewe kubera abarwanyi ba Boko Haram bivuze ko Tchad iramutse idatekanye, byaha na bariya barwanyi urwaho rwo kwisanzura bakifatanya n’abandi kuyibuza amahwemo.

Ingabo za Tchad

Abasirikare ba Tchad bari bamaze imyaka irenga itanu ku nkengero z’ikiyaga cya Tchad bari maso, bakumira ko abarwanyi ba Boko Haram bakwambuka Nigeria bakaza guhungabanya umutekano.

Abakurikiranira hafi ibiri kubera muri kiriya gihugu bemeza ko abasirikare bari ku butegetsi bafite akazi gakomeye ko kugarura umutuzo mu gihugu kandi ntigitakaze ijambo gisanganywe mu karere giherereyemo.

Tchad yari isanganywe ibindi bibazo…

Ikindi abasesengura Politiki ya Tchad bavuga ni uko hari abatishimiraga uko Perezida Idriss Déby Itno yacungaga ibikomoka kuri Petelori.

Bavuga ko kuba igihugu cye kiri mu bifite uriya mutungo mwinshi ariko amafaranga avamo ntasaranganywe mu baturage ngo abagirire akamaro, ari imwe mu mpamvu zituma hari abo byarakaje begura intwaro.

Ikindi cyiyongera kuri byo ni uko bisa n’aho Déby atari yariteguye kurekura ubutegetsi hakiri kare kugira ngo ibintu abicungire ahitaruye bitaraba ngombwa ko hagira bamwe bamutera ikizere.

Yari aherutse gutsindira kuyobora Tchad kuri Manda ya gatandatu.

Deby yari ayoboye Tchad mu gihe cy’imyaka 30

Muri 1990 nibwo yageze ku butegetsi ahiritse Hissène Habré.

Tchad mu ncamake:

Igihugu cya Tchad ni igihugu kidakora ku Nyanja. Ni gihugu kiri mu bihugu binini byo muri Afurika.

Mu Majyaruguru ya Tchad hari Libya, mu Burasirazuba hakaba Sudani, mu Majyepfo ya Tchad hari Repubulika ya Centrafrique, mu Majyepfo ashyira Uburengerazuba hari Cameroun na Nigeria n’aho Niger ikaba ri mu Burengerazuba.

Tchad ni igihugu kiri mu bifite igisikare gikomeye mu gace iherereyemo.

Ubutaka n’ikirere bya Tchad birihariye kuko ifite ubutayu, ikagira ibibaya byera biri mu Majyepfo yayo.

Ifite kandi ibiyaga harimo n’icyakamye kitwa Lac Tchad.

Ni igihugu gituwe n’amoko 200 y’abaturage bavuga indimi zitandukanye ariko bagahurira ku Cyarabu n’Igifaransa.

Abisilamu nibo benshi muri kiriya gihugu kuko bangana na 51.8%, n’aho Abakirisitu bakaba ari 44.1%.

Imibare yatangajwe nyuma y’ibarura ry’abaturage ryo muri 2015 yerekana ko muri kiriya gihe, Tchad  yari ituwe n’abaturage 13,679,203.

Muri bo 3,212,470 batuye mu mijyi n’aho abandi 10,457,614 batuye mu cyaro.

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