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Nyiragongo: ‘Bombe Ya Karahabutaka’ Mu Karere U Rwanda Rurimo

Yanditswe kuwa

Nyiragongo ni ikirunga giherereye mu gace kagizwe n’imisozi miremire yo muri Repubulika ya Demukarasi ya Kongo ituranye n’u Rwanda.

Iherutse kuruka yimura abantu ibihumbi aho irangirije kuruka mu nda yayo hakomeza gutogota amahindure(magma) yateje imitingito mu nkengero zayo no kure yayo( i Kigali) yangije byinshi cyane cyane ahayegereye.

Ahayegereye hakubititse kurusha ahandi ni mu Mujyi wa Goma, umujyi usa n’uwubatse ku birenge bya Nyiragongo.

Muri 2002 nabwo cyararutse giteza urupfu rw’abantu barenga 200 gisenya 20% by’inzu zari zubatse Umujyi wa Goma.

Ejo bundi rero ubwo giheruka kuruka( hashize ibyumweru bibiri), ikirunga Nyiragongo cyabanje guhuma ikirere kubera imyotsi ivanze n’ivu.

Iyi myotsi yaje gukurikirwa no kuruka kwacyo, amahindure amanuka agana muri Goma no mu bice byerekera i Rwanda ariko ku bw’amahire ntiyahagera yose uko yakabaye.

Abahanga mu mikorere y’ibirunga bavuga ko iruka ryacyo riheruka ritari ryuzuye.

Amahindure yasohokeye mu bice bimwe by’umunwa wa kiriya kirunga, ashoka agana i Goma, ariko ntiyagerayo neza kuko imbaraga ziyasunika zabaye nke.

Ku nshuro ya mbere kiruka hari mu masaha ya mu gitondo ari ku Cyumweru, ariko imyotsi yacyo yari yaraye ihumye ikirere mu ijoro ryo ku wa Gatandatu tariki 22, Gicurasi, 2021.

Abatuye imidugudu 17 yo mu mujyi wa Goma barahunze, abenshi bahungira mu Rwanda, ubwo ariko hari na bamwe mu Banyarwanda bo mu mirenge ya Cyanzarwe, Busasamana…bari bahunze banga ko ariya mahindure yabagwa gitumo.

Imibare ikinyamakuru Atlasobscura.com kivuga ko cyahawe n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe impunzi yerekana ko ariya mahindure yavanye abaturage 20 000 mu byabo.

Imiterere y’ubutaka Nyiragongo ihagazeho…

Iyo usesenguye imiterere y’ubutaka Nyiragongo ihagazeho nibwo ubona ko kiriya kirunga kihariye.

Ubutaka ihagazeho, ni ukuvuga ibinyabutabire biri mu nda y’isi aho Nyiragongo iherereye, butuma igira amahindure ahora yiteguye kuba yasohoka.

Aho Nyiragongo iteretse hegereye igice cy’isi bita mantle, ni ukuvuga igice cya kabiri mu bigize umubumbe w’Isi ubaze uturutse hejuru, ni ukuvuga ku butaka duhingaho, dutuyeho, ugana imbere mu nda y’isi.

Imiterere y’isi uhereye aho dutuye ugana imbere

Ubusanzwe umubumbe w’isi ugizwe n’ibice bine.

Ibyo bice ni icyo mu Cyongereza bita Crust. Iki gice gifite ubujyakuzimu bwa kilometero zero(Km 0) kugeza kuri kilometero 70.

Igice cya kabiri kitwa Mantle gifite ubujyakuzimu bwa kilometero kuva kuri 70, kugeza kuri kilometero 2891, hakurikiraho igice cya gatatu kitwa Outer core gifite ubujyakuzimu bwa kilometero 2391 kugeza kuri kilometero 5150.

Nyuma haza ikindi gice kitwa Inner core, gifite ubuso bwa kilometero ziri hagati ya kilometero 2391 kugeza kuri kilometero 6731.

Aho Nyiragongo ibera icyago  ni uko inda yayo ituranye na cya gice cya kabiri kitwa Mantle, iki kikaba ari icyo kibamo amahindure ( bita lava mu Cyongereza).

Iyi lava niyo bita magma iyo yamaze gusohoka mu kirunga kiyirutse, ikajya hanze.

Kwegera igice kitwa mantle ni ikibazo ariko ikindi kibazo kibi kurushaho ni uko amahindure ya Nyiragongo atagira ikinyabutabire kitwa silica gifasha mu gutuma amahindure avura.

Kuba nta silica nyinshi iba mu mahindure asohoka muri Nyiragongo bituma iyo irutse igeza amahindure kure cyane kandi akaza yihuta.

Kutagira silica muri ariya mahindure umuntu yabigereranya no kutagira vitamine K mu maraso kuko iyo umuntu adafite ihagije, iyo akomeretse bigorana cyane ko amaraso ye avura( coagulate).

Iyo Nyiragongo irutse nyabyo, amahindure yayo ashobora kugira umuvuduko ungana cyangwa urenga kilometero 40 ku isaha.

Biragoye kurokoka umuriro wayo, umwotsi mubi ubanziriza cyangwa ukurikira uyu muriro n’ibindi bizamukana n’amahindure  birimo amabuye n’ibindi.

Ikindi ni uko iki kirunga gikunda kuruka gitunguranye k’uburyo kugihunga bigorana.

Urugero ni uko mu myaka mike ishize, abahanga bari barabonye ko Nyiragongo izaruka ariko ibyuma byabo ntibyigeze bibona ko yaruka mu gihe gito cyagombaga gukurikira ibipimo byabo.

Nyiragongo ni Bombe ya karahabutaka…

Iruka rya Nyiragongo riheruka mu by’ukuri ntiryari iruka rifatika.

Abahanga bahora bacungira hafi iki kiri mu biteje akaga kurusha ibindi ku isi

Ntabwo Nyiragongo yarutse ngo yimareyo. Kuba itarimaze yo ni ikibazo kuko amahindure akiri mu nda yayo azasohoka  byanga bikunda.

Ni ikibazo cy’igihe gusa!

Abahanga basanzwe bakurikiranira hafi imikorere ya Nyiragongo bavuga ko kutaruka kwayo ngo yimareyo byatumye mu nda yayo hakomeza kuba imitingito kandi ngo iyi mitingito yari yihariye ugereranyije n’iyigeze kubaho mu bihe byahise ubwo Nyiragongo yarukaga.

Ni imitingito yari itandukanye mu bukana n’ibihe yabereyemo bituma ibyuma bigomba kuyifataho amakuru no kuyabika bibikora bibigoye.

Ibi bivuze ko n’abahanga mu byo gusuzuma imikorere y’ibirunga bataricara ngo basesengure neza icyo kiriya kirunga ‘gihishiye abantu mu gihe kiri imbere’.

Ikindi ni uko uko iminsi ihita ari ko imyenge amahindure yaciyemo igenda yifunga bityo ibibera imbere muri iyo bikaba ari ibyo kwitega.

Ibiri amahire ni uko ubu mu gace gaturanye na Nyiragongo hashyizwe ibyuma bya radars bikora amanywa n’ijoro bicunga imiterere y’ubutaka buri kuri  cyangwa buturanye na Nyiragongo.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, si ko buri gihe amahindure asohoka hanze y’ikirunga. Bishobora guterwa n’uko ubutaka bukomeye cyangwa se amahindure akaba nta mbaraga afite zo gusatura ubutaka ngo asohoke akwire henshi.

Ibi niko byagenze muri Werurwe, 2021 ubwo amahindure  mu kirunga kitwa Reykjanes kiri muri Iceland yagaragaye gato hejuru y’iki kirunga ariko ntiyatemba ngo ajye mu baturage.

Nyuma yo kubura uko asohoka yakomeje gutembera imbere mu butaka ashaka ahantu haba horoshye nyuma aza kuhabona.

Hari impungenge ko ari ko bizagenda kuri Nyiragongo, iherutse kuruka ntiyimareyo.

Abahanga bafite impungenge z’uko ariya mahindure yaba ari gutembera mu nda y’ubutaka umujyi wa Goma wubatsweho ashakisha aho yazasohokera.

Ikindi giteye inkeke ni uko hari ubwo amahindure ya Nyiragongo yazazamukira mu kiyaga cya Kivu( bituranye) bikayongerera uburyo bwo kuzamukana imbaraga kuko mu nda y’ikiyaga haba horoshye, ibi bikiyongera ku kibazo cy’uko mu Kiyaga cya Kivu habamo metero kibe nyinshi z’umwuka wa Mèthane n’uwa carbon dioxide.

Iyo  ikirunga kurutse amahindure akazamukira mu kiyaga mu mvugo ya gihanga babyita  phreatomagmatism.

Amateka y’imikorere ya kiriya kirunga n’ikiyaga cya Kivu bituranye avuga ko Nyiragongo yigeze kurukira muri kiriya kiyaga inshuro 15.

Ubu hashize imyaka 12 000.

Imiterere y’ikiyaga cya Kivu nk’uko tukibona ubu burya yatewe no kuruka kwa Nyiragongo.

Amahirwe  yonyine abantu baturiye ikiyaga cya Kivu bagira ni uko Nyiragongo itaruka inyujije mu mazi y’ikiyaga cya Kivu kuko biramutse bibaye byaba ari inkuru mbi cyane.

Nyiragongo abahanga bavuga ko ariyo bombe atomique iteze mu gace u Rwanda, Repubulika ya Demukarasi ya Kongo na Uganda biherereyemo.

Guturana na Nyiragongo ni nko guturana na bombe utazi igihe izaturikira

Hejuru y’amahindure afite imbaraga zo kugenda ibilometero bigera cyangwa birenga 40 ku isaha, ibyago Nyiragongo yateza byiyongeraho urupfu rwaterwa no kubura umwuka wo guhumeka haba ku bantu cyangwa ku binyabuzima biyituriye iramutse irukanye ubukana bwayo bwose.

Ku munwa wayo hahora ibyuka bya carbon dioxide bihora byibumbye bitegereje icyakoma rutenderi ngo bifate inzira bigana mu kirere.

Ubwo kandi niko bimeze no mu Kiyaga cya Kivu kuko nacyo kibitse metero kibe nyinshi z’uriya mwuka mubi.

Si rimwe si kabiri abantu bagiye bapfa bagiye koga muri kiriya kiyaga bazira guhumeka uriya mwuka ugatuma babura imbaraga bakarohama.

Muri make ngizo impamvu zituma Nyiragongo ari ikibazo ku buzima bw’abayituriye ndetse ikaba ari n’inshoberamahanga ku bahanga bahora biga ibyayo.

Ubu abafata ibyemezo haba mu Rwanda cyangwa muri Repubulika ya Demukarasi ya Kongo ntibaramenya mu by’ukuri uko ibintu bizaba byafashe mu byumweru, amezi cyangwa imyaka biri imbere.

Kutamenya uko kiriya kirunga kizitwara bituma ibyemezo byose bafata bigomba kuba ‘ari iby’agateganyo’ kuko ushingiye ku byo twanditse haruguru, ‘kuri Nyiragongo, ibibi biri imbere.

Ifoto ya satellite yerekana aho Nyiragongo iherutse kuruka yerekeza

Imibare yerekana ibyo yangije

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