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Toranya Neza Ibyo Usoma

Yanditswe kuwa

Buri taliki 23, Mata, buri mwaka isi izirikana akamaro k’ibitabo mu bantu. Ibitabo nibyo bikoresho byagiriye abantu akamaro kurusha ibindi nyuma y’ubuhinzi. Ubuhinzi bwatumye bakura hafi y’aho batuye ibitabo bituma bahererekanya ubumenyi bwazamuye iterambere ryabo.

N’ubwo gusoma bisa n’ibyabaye umuco hirya no hino ku ku isi, ni ngombwa ko abantu bamenya guhitamo neza ibitabo byo gusoma kuko igitabo kirimo inyuguti ziroga kica nk’uko intwaro cyangwa indwara byica.

Ku rundi ruhande, abatuye isi batangiye kuzirikana akamaro k’ibitabo mu rwego isi guhera muy mwaka wa 1995.

Uretse mu Bwongereza bazirikana akamaro k’ibitabo muri Werurwe, buri mwaka, ahandi ku isi babkkora muri Mata, buri taliki 23.

Mu kuzirikana akamaro k’ibitabo, abatuye isi bazanazirikana ko kubyandika bivuna bityo bakibukiranya ko kwigana ibikubiye mu gitabo cy’undi utabiherewe uburenganzira, ari icyaha gihanwa n’amategeko mu bihugu byinshi.

Mu gihe cy’Amateka ya cyera bita Antiquité nibwo abantu bavumbuye kwandika.

Inyandiko zatumye abantu bahererekanya ibitekerezo imico n’imigenzo.

Kubera ko muri izo nyandiko ari ho habaga bahitswe ibitekerezo by’ingirakamaro, byabaye ngombwa ko abantu babyubakira inzu zikomeye mu rwego rwo kubirinda.

Abanzi bakomeye b’ibitabo ni inkongi, uruhumbu n’ivumbi.

Ku ikubitiro, uburyo bwa mbere abantu bandikagamo bwari uburyo bwo gufata utuntu tumeze nk’utwuma cyangwa ibiti bakabisharuza ku matafari ataruma barangiza kuryandikaho bakaritwika ubwo ibyanditseho bikaba bihawe igihe cyo kuramba.

Ni uburyo bw’imyandikire bita cuneiform bwatangijwe n’abaturage bitwaga Abasumeri bari batuye muri Mezopotamiya ya kiriya gihe, ubu ni muri Iraq.

Ubu buryo bwararambye bugera n’ahandi mu isi ya kiriya gihe harimo n’i Babuloni.

Kubera ko Abanyamisiri bacuruzanyaga n’Abasimeri bo muri Mezopotamiya, baje kwiga kwandika ariko basanga ibyiza ari ukwandika ku bikoresho bikoze mu rufunzo bashishuraga bakabyumisha.

Ni ibifunzo bita papyrus.

Nyuma yo kubyandikaho, barabizingaga bakabibika ari imizingo.

Mu magambo avunaguye, twakwemeza ko muri Mezopotamiya ari ho havukiye inyandiko n’ubwo imyandikire yagiye ihinduka bitewe n’ibihe n’ahantu.

Kubera iyi mpamvu, aka gace niko usanga karavukiyemo imijyi n’ibitekerezo byatumye isi ya kiriya gihe iba uko amateka ayivuga muri iki gihe.

Yewe hari n’aho imico n’ibitekerezo byo muri kiriya gihe bikigaragara na n’ubu!

Ni muri aka gace kandi hubatswe inzu y’ibitabo yitiriwe Celsus , ikaba iherereye mu nkengero z’Inyanja ya Egée, hafi ya Turikiya y’ubu.

Umujyi wa Ephèse wubatswemo iriya nzu y’ibitabo wari uri mu gace kacagamo abacuruzi bavaga imihanda yose harimo abavaga mu Bugereki no muri Roma bya cyera.

Muri urwo ruhurirane ni n’aho ababaga mu madini atandukanye yari ho muri kiriya gihe bahuriraga, bakaganira.

Umuhanga mu Bumenyi bw’isi n’Amateka wo muri kiriya gihe witwa Strabo yanditse ko abantu ba mbere bashinze Umujyi wa Ephèse ari abitwaga Amazones.

Aba bari abagore b’abarwanyi cyangwa b’abahigi bari baturiye Inyanja y’Umukara.

Icyakora nta makuru arambuye Strabo atanga ku nkomoko n’imikorere ya bariya bagore.

Bariya bagore bashinze uriya mujyi sibo bawugejeje ku rwego wamenyekanyeho mu mateka ahubwo byakozwe n’abatwaga Hitite, bamamaye mu mwaka wa 1050 B.C.

Bageze muri kariya gace baturutse mu Bugereki.

Uriya mujyi waje kwamamara kugeza ubwo wagutse ugera mu gice kinini cy’u Bugereki bwo mu gihe cya cyera kandi kwagurwa kwawo kwagizwemo uruhare n’abagaba b’ingabo z’umwami Alegizanderi Mukuru wa Macédoine.

Uyu yari umuhungu w’Umwami Filipo, akaba yarabaye igihangange cyane mu bami bategetse u  Bugereki.

Ubwo Roma yabaga igihangange, umujyi wa Ephèse waje kuba ihuriro ry’ibikorwa bya Roma mu gace wari urimo kubera ko wari uri ahantu rwagati ubucuruzi n’ibitekerezo byo muri ya kiriya gihe byahuriraga.

Ni umujyi wari utuwe n’abantu 250, 000 .

Aba barenda kungana n’abatuye Akarere ka Rutsiro muri iki gihe.

Kubera ko wategetwe n’abantu bo mu mico itandukanye barimo aba Lidiya, Abaperesi, Abagereki ba Alegizanderi, Abaromani, Aba-Otomani n’abandi, byatumwe uba umujyi w’abahanga n’abantu bacyerebutse.

Icyakora intiti zivuga mu buryo butandukanye uwatanze itegeko ryo kubaka inzu y’ibitabo ya Celsus ariko benshi bahuriza ku ngingo y’uko itegeko ryo kuyubaka ryatanzwe umutware w’Umuromani witwaga Gaius Julius Aquila abikora mu rwego rwo guha icyubahiro Se witwaga  Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus.

Iby’imyubakirwe y’inzu, intiti zabimenye zishingiye ku nyandiko yasharuwe kuri rumwe mu nkuta z’iri mu muryango w’iyi nzu.

Icyuzura yashyizwemo imizingo y’ibitabo iri hagati ya 9,000 na 12,000.

Ikirangiza kuzura yashinzwe umugabo witwa Celsus wari intiti mu mategeko no mu bikorwa bya gisirikare ngo abe ari we uyicunga.

Ni inzu yubatswe hakoreshejwe itaka bita marbre. Yubatswe ihawe umusingi muremure k’uburyo yashoboye guhangana n’imitingito n’inkubi zikomeye k’uburyo n’ubu igihagaze.

Uretse ibitabo yabitswemo, iyo uyibonye ubona ko abayubatse  bayizengurukije inkingi zirimo ibibumbano byerekana umuco wo gice yubatswemo n’abahacaga bava cyangwa guhaha hafi aho.

Ibitabo rero ni isoko ya byose…

Byigisha kubana n’abandi, gukundana, ikoranabuhanga, ubugenge, ubutabire, imibare, ibitekerezo ndetse hari n’ibitabo byashyize mu bantu imyumvire yatumye bamara abandi, urugero nka Mein Kampf cyanditswe na Adolf Hitler ubwo yari afunzwe.

Cyatangajwe mu mwaka wa 1925.

Igitabo Mein Kampf cya Adolf Hitler

Kubera ko ibitabo ari ingenzi ni ngombwa ko umusomyi ahitamo neza ibitabo byo gusoma kuko iyo ahisemo ibitabo bibiba urwango bituma rumucengera akaba yakora ishyano nk’iryo Abanazi basomye Mein Kampf bakoreye Abayahudi cyangwa iryo Interahamwe n’abandi bahezanguni bakoreye Abatutsi muri Jenoside yabakorewe mu mwaka wa 1994 nyuma yo gucengerwa n’amatwara ya PARMEHUTI yasohowe muri Kangura( ikinyamakuru cy’abahezanguni.)

Jya witondera ibyo usoma kuko ari amafunguro uba uha ubwonko bwawe. Kangura iyi yenyegeje urwango Abahutu bangaga Abatutsi

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