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Umuganura: Umwe Mu Minsi Ikomeye Mu Mateka Y’Abanyarwanda

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Abanyarwanda ni abantu bafite igihugu n’umuco byihariye. Uretse kuba bose kuva kera na kare bari basangiye ururimi, bigatuma bunga ubumwe kubera ko buri wese yumvikanaga na mugenzi we, Abanyarwanda bagiranaga n’imiyoborere ishingiye ku ngingo bitaga INZIRA.

Imwe muri izo nzira yari Inzira y’Umuganura.

Inzira wazigereranya n’amahame shingiro Itegeko nshinga ry’u Rwanda ry’ubu rigenderaho.

Nizo zagombaga gukurikizwa kugira ngo igihugu kiyoborwe neza, umwami akaba ari we uhagarariye ibintu byose mu gihugu.

Itsinda ry’abakuru b’ibwami bitwaga Abiru nibo bagombaga gushyira mu bikorwa ibigenwa mu bigize buri Nzira.

Buri Nzira yagiraga imihango igendana nayo bitewe n’igihe yakurikizwaga. Hariho inzira y’ikirogoto, inzira ya rukungugu, inzira ya Nyakanga…. n’Inzira y’Umuganura.

Aha reka tuvuge ku Nzira y’Umuganura.

Inzira y’umuganura ni imwe mu Nzira  18 zari zigize inzira z’ubwiru mu Rwanda mu gihe cy’ingoma ya cyami.

Inzira z’ubwiru zarimo iz’ubukungu, iz’umutekano w’igihugu n’inzira zo gukomeza ubwami.

Zerekanaga uko igihugu kiyoborwa mu bihe runaka, niba hateye inzara hakaba inzira igihugu kigomba kunyuramo kugira ngo gihangane n’ayo, gutyo gutyo.

Mu mateka y’u Rwanda, umunsi w’Umuganura wari umunsi mukuru ngarukamwaka wubahwaga kandi ugahabwa agaciro ibwami no mu muryango w’Abanyarwanda bose.

Abanyamateka bavuga ko Umuganura watangiye kwizihizwa ku ngoma ya Gihanga Ngomijana mu kinyejana cya kenda.

Waje kongera guhabwa  imbaraga na Ruganzu II Ndoli hagati y’imyaka ya 1510-1543 ubwo yabohoraga u Rwanda nyuma y’imyaka irenga cumi n’itanu rwarigaruriwe n’Abanyoro n’Abanyabungo.

Abiru nibo bari bashinzwe umuhango w’umuganura.

Abaturage bakoranyaga imyaka bejeje hirya no hino mu gihugu bakayijyana ibwami.

Ku munsi w’umuganura umwami yarapfukamaga akerekana  icyubahiro aha abo ayobora ndetse n’Igihugu, agafata umwuko akavuga umutsima afatanyije n’umuganuza, umwamikazi n’umugabekazi bakarya bakanywa ndetse bakaza kunywa n’inzoga, bagatarama bakaza kuvuga ibigwi by’ibyo bakoze mu gihugu.

Nyuma y’umuhango wo kuganura hakurikiragaho ibirori by’Umuganura byasozwaga n’igitaramo k’imihigo.

Ku rwego rw’Igihugu, Umuganura wayoborwaga n’Umwami afashijwe n’abanyamihango b’Umuganura.

Abo ni abo kwa Rutsobe n’abo kwa Myaka ya Musana.

Ku rwego rw’umuryango, umukuru w’umuryango niwe wayoboraga iyo mihango.

Ku munsi w’Umuganura nyirizina, abayobozi basabanaga n’abayoborwa mu gitaramo k’imihigo, abana bagasabana n’ababyeyi.

Ni muri icyo gitaramo cy’Umuganura hamurikwaga ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa (inka nziza, umusaruro ushimishije…) maze abakoze neza bagashimwa, ibigwari bikagawa.

Ku ngoma ya Musinga ni bwo umuhango w’Umuganura wahagaze  ubwo umwiru Gashamura ka Rukangirashyamba wari ushinzwe imihango yawo yacirirwaga i Burundi mu mwaka wa 1925.

Uyu Gashamura ni umwe uvugwa mu nsigamigani igira iti: ‘Runaka yaragashize nka Gashamura.’

Kuva icyo gihe Umuganura ntiwongeye kwizihizwa.

Nyuma y’uko u Rwanda rubonye ubwigenge, abantu bakomeje kwizihiza Umuganura mu miryango yabo ariko ubuyobozi bwariho muri icyo gihe ntibwashyiragamo imbaraga ngo Umuganura uhabwe agaciro ukwiye.

Leta y’u Rwanda igendeye ku byiza n’akamaro Umuganura wagize mu kubaka Igihugu, yawuhaye agaciro gakomeye, ishyiraho n’umunsi w’ikiruhuko uba buri wa Gatanu wa mbere w’ukwezi kwa Kanama.

Iteka rya Perezida no 54/01 ryo ku wa 24/02/2017 mu ngingo ya 3 (100) niryo ribigena hagamijwe ko kuri uwo uwo munsi, Abanyarwanda basabana, bunga  ubumwe, bazirikana ibyiza bagezeho ari nako bahiga gukora neza kurushaho umwaka utaha.

Ahakunze gukorerwa umuganura mu Rwanda rwo hambere…

Inteko Nyarwanda izirikana iherutse gutangaza ko  mu gihe cy’umuganura wo mu gihe cy’abami, umwiru wo kwa Myaka yari afite inshingano zo gukusanyiriza i Huro imyaka.

Aha i Huro muri iki gihe ni mu Karere ka Gakenke, mu Murenge wa Muhondo.

Imyaka yahakusanyirizwaga ni  uburo n’amasaka.

Yakoreshwaga ibwami mu mihango y’umuganura akazisohozayo, ndetse akagira uruhare, kimwe n’umwami n’umwiru w’umuganura, mu mihango yakorwaga ku munsi nyir’izina w’umuganura.

Muri Huro ni mu Karere ka Gakenke

Abiru b’abahinzi banitwaga ‘abiru bo kwa Myaka’, bari bafite icyicaro ku musozi bigengaho wa Huro.

Basimburanaga ku mazina ya Nyamurasa, Musana na Mumbogo.

i Huro ni ho hahingwaga imbuto nkuru zakoreshwaga mu Muganura. Hari hatuye abiru bashinzwe imihango yawo, ndetse hari n’ivubiro ribafasha kumenya niba imvura izagwira igihe, bitaba ibyo bakitabaza abavubyi kugira ngo imbuto z’umuganura zibibwe kare.

Ahandi hantu habumbatiye amateka y’Umuganura, n’ i Rutunga mu Karere ka Gasabo.

Umwanditsi w’ibitabo, akaba n’umunyamuryango w’Inteko Izirikana Faida Jean Damascène  yavuze ko umuganura kuva kera ari ‘isôoko y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.

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