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IMF: Uruganda Rwa Politiki Z’Imari N’Ubukungu Zitegeka Isi

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Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari wakigereranya n’uruganda abahanga mu bukungu bakomeye bifuza gukorera kugira ngo bagire uruhare muri Politiki zigenga imari n’ubukungu ku isi.

Ni ikigega cyashinzwe mu mwaka wa 1944 nyuma y’ibibazo by’ubukungu isi yari ivuyemo ku Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yose yari irimo irangira.

Icyo gihe byari ngombwa ko abatuye isi bagira umurongo urambuye bakurikira haba mu buryo bwa Politiki n’ubw’ubukungu.

Mu rwego rwo gushyiraho gahunda y’imikoranire mu rwego rw’imari, ibihugu byari bimaze gutsinda Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi byahuriye ahitwa Breton Woods muri imwe muri Leta zigize Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika yitwa New Hampshire bashyiraho Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari, International Monetary Fund.

Uretse intego yo gushyira hamwe politiki z’ubukungu, biriya bihugu byavuze ko bishyize imbere bigamije kurwanya ubukene bwacaga ibintu bigacika ku isi kubera ingaruka z’iriya ntambara.

Icyakora hari bamwe bavuga ko politiki zikorerwa muri kiriya kigo akenshi ziba zigamije inyungu z’ibihugu bikize, izo nyungu zikaboneka biturutse ku myenda iki kigega kiguriza ibihugu bikennye ikishyurwa ku nyungu iri hejuru bityo ntigire icyo isigira ibihugu byayihawe.

Ibi byakorwa mu cyo abahanga mu bukungu bita  ‘Programmes d’Adjustement Structurels’.

Ibihugu 190 nibyo binyamuryango by’Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari, IMF.

Ubwo kiriya kigega cyashingwaga, ibihugu 44 nibyo basinyiye ku ikubitiro kuba umunyamuryango wacyo.

Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yabaye ikurikira ibihe by’akaga isi( mu Burayi) yari ivuyemo.

Christine Lagarde ahobera uwamusimbuye ari Kristalina Georgieva.

Ni ibihe by’akanda n’ubukene bukomeye ibihugu by’u Burayi byaciyemo abahanga mu mateka bita Great Depression(Kanama 1929 – Werurwe, 1933).

Uretse kuba muri iki kigo hakorerwa imirongo migari ya politiki z’ubukungu bugomba kuyobora isi, hakorwa nizibuza ko idolari ryahungabana cyane kuko ari ryo imari y’isi ishingiyeho.

IMF: Ihoza ijisho ku bihugu binyamuryango…

Muri kiriya kigo habamo itsinda rishinzwe iyo bise ‘surveillance’ ni ukuvuga gucunga ko  politiki z’amafaranga y’ibihugu zidahungabana k’uburyo byagira ingaruka ku bukungu bwabyo, ubw’Akarere biherereyemo cyangwa ubw’ibindi bice by’isi muri rusange.

Iyo bigaragaye ko hari ibihugu bifite politiki zishobora gutuma ubukungu bwabyo n’ibihugu bituranye nabyo buhungabana, abahanga bo muri IMF batanga inama z’uko ibintu byasubizwa mu buryo.

Mu rwego rwo gukorera mu mucyo, ubuyobozi bwa IMF busohora raporo zitandukanye zerekana uko ubukungu bw’isi buhagaze, igihugu ku kindi, umugabane ku wundi.

Ni raporo zitandukana bitewe n’urwego rw’ubukungu rwakorezweho ubushakashatsi.

Ni muri uru rwego uzumva raporo zitwa World Economic Outlook  cyangwa  Global Financial Stability Report  cyangwa Fiscal Monitor cyangwa  External Sector Report n’izindi nto zikorwa harebwe ibice by’isi byihariye.

Icyakora hari abaherutse kugaya ubuyobozi bw’iki kigega kuko bwemeye gushyirwaho igitutu n’abategetsi b’u Bushinwa kugira ngo babuhe amanota meza muri raporo zitandukanye kandi butari buyakwiriye.

Ni ikibazo cyari kigiye gutuma umuyobozi w’iki kigega Umunya Bulgaria Kristalina Ivanova Georgieva-Kinova yegura.

Tugarutse ku byerecyeye umwenda iki kigega giha ibihugu binyamuryango, abagikoramo bavuga ko guha umwenda ibihugu biri mu bibazo by’ubukungu hagamijwe kubifasha kuzanzamuka, ari intego yabo idakuka.

Urugero ruherutse kugaragara ni igihe ibihugu byinshi ku isi byari biri mu bibazo bikomeye by’ubukungu mu mwaka wa 2009, iki kigega kirabigoboka.

Birumvikana ko amafaranga ashyirwa muri kiriya kigega aba afite aho yaturutse.

Ibihugu bitanga menshi rero ntibibura gukurikiranira hafi uko akoreshwa hirindwa ko yazaba impfabusa binyuze mu kuyakoresha icyo atagenewe cyangwa kuyanyereza.

Abahanga ba IMF boherereza abakozi  bakajya gukurikiranira hafi uko amafaranga y’ikigega cyabo akoreshwa.

Ikibabaje ni uko ahenshi abashyira mu bikorwa ziriya politiki ari abo muri biriya bihugu, bagahembwa mu mafaranga ibikennye biba byagujije hanyuma bikarangira amafaranga hafi ya yose asubiye iwabo.

Icyakora hashize igihe runaka hari ibiganiro birambuye biba hagati y’ubuyobozi bwa IMF n’ubw’ibihugu bihabwa imyenda kugira ngo habeho kumvikana uko yajya yishyurwa ku nyungu itazatuma isanduku y’imari ya Leta zagurijwe isigara yera.

Ikindi  ibihugu bikennye bisaba IMF n’ibihugu biyiha amafaranga menshi ni uko abahanga bayo bajya bahugura ab’ibihugu bikennye kugira ngo nabo bagire ubumenyi bwo kwicungira umutungo wabo no kuwubyaza umusaruro.

Mu isanduku y’iki kigega hahoramo miliyari 1000$( ni ukuvuga tiliyari 1$) yo kuguriza ibihugu bibikeneye.

Amasezerano y’i Breton Woods avuga ko Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari kigomba kuyoborwa n’Umunyaburayi gusa n’aho Banki Y’Isi ikayoborwa n’Umunyamerika w’ubwenegihugu muzi cyangwa wabonye ubu bwenegihugu mu bundi buryo ariko bwemewe.

Muri macye ngiyo imiterere n’imikorere by’ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari, IMF.

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