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Ikoranabuhanga Mu Itumanaho Muri Afurika Baryitege! U Rwanda Ruririnze

Yanditswe kuwa

Henshi muri Afurika, ikoranabuhanga  riri gukora ibitangaza! Ni uburyo bwaje gukangura Afurika kugira ngo nayo igendere ku ntambwe ibindi bihugu biriho muri iki gihe. Umuvuduko waryo uraganisha he uyu mugabane? Ko ibihugu by’Afurika bitaritangiriye rimwe, ibyakererewe bizahura n’izihe ngaruka?

Ikoranabuhanga muri Afurika rigaragarira mu ngeri nyinshi harimo gukoresha za cameras zishinzwe gucunga umutekano mu bigo, utudege duto dutwara n’abapilote batataturimo, ibyuma bikora nk’abantu(robots), n’imijyi yubatswe mu buryo bubungabunga ibidukikije(smart cities) n’ibindi.

Ryabaye kandi uburyo bwa Leta bwo gukumira no gufata abica amategeko, bakakira cyangwa bagatanga ruswa ndetse riba n’uburyo bwiza za Guverinoma zikoresha mu gukusanya imisoro no kumenya abatayitanga uko bisabwa.

Cameras zikoresherejwe hamwe n’ikoranabuhanga ryo kumenya amasura y’abantu(facila recognition) zifasha Polisi gutahura, gukumira no gufata abagizi ba nabi cyane cyane abategura cyangwa abakoze iterabwoba bagacika.

Mu Rwanda, Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Ubugenzacyaha hamwe na Polisi bakunze gutangaza amasura y’abantu bashakishwa kandi bagafatwa.

Urugero ruherutse kandi rwatangaje abantu kubera uko abari bakurikiranyweho ubugizi bwa nabi bafashwe nyuma y’iminsi mike, ni abasore babiri bafashwe amashusho na camera ziri mu gikari cy’imwe mu nzu ziba ahitwa mu Migina mu Murenge wa Remera bambura umugore amafaranga ye bakanamukubita.

Ku byerekeye twa tudege dutwarwa n’abapilote bataturimo, u Rwanda nicyo gihugu cya mbere ku isi cyatwifashishije mu kugeza amaraso ahantu hitaruye, hari hasanzwe hagora imodoka zitabara imbabare kuhagera.

camera zafashije Polisi na RIB gufata aba bagizi ba nabi

Uyu mushinga u Rwanda rwawufashijwemo n’Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika kitwa Zipline.

Iterambere mu ikoranabuhanga rifite ikiguzi…

N’ubwo Afurika iri kuzamuka vuba mu ikoranabuhanga, birayihenda. Ikindi ni uko ahari ikoranabuhanga hatabura abagizi ba nabi baryiga bagamije kurikoresha kugira ngo bakome mu nkokora Polisi n’abandi bashinzwe gutahura, gukumira no kugenza ibyaha.

Aba bagizi ba nabi bakora uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga(bita malware)bwo gukoresha mu guhuma za cameras kugira ngo ntizibabone neza cyangwa na za drones ntizibashe gukora akazi kazo  mu kubahiga.

Kugira ngo ikoranabuhanga mu ngeri twanditse haruguru rigirire akamaro Afurika mu buryo burambye, bizaterwa n’uko urubyiruko ruzaryitabira kandi rukarikoresha mu buryo nyabwo, bataripfusha ubusa.

Ibihugu by’Afurika bizihatira kurikoresha neza, nibyo bizarikuramo inyungu kurusha ibindi, haba mu kugira umutekano urambye ndetse no mu kuzamura ireme ry’iterambere rishingiye ku burezi.

Ikibabaje ni uko hari ibihugu byinshi by’Afurika bibigendamo biguru ntege!

Muri iki gihe ubwo Isi muri rusange n’Afurika by’umwihariko biri kugenda byikura mu ngaruka za COVID-19, ibihugu by’Afurika bifite amahitamo atoroshye yo kumenya niba byakoresha ririya koranabuhanga mu kuzahura ubukungu bwabyo cyangwa niba ryaba intwaro ya politiki mu gupyinagaza abatavuga rumwe nabyo, kubiba amacakubiri mu baturage hagamijwe inyungu za politiki n’ibindi.

Murandasi yaracengeye…

Iyo witegereje uko abatuye Afurika bitabiriye gukoresha murandasi, urumirwa!

Brooking.edu yanditse ko kugeza ubu  ¼ cy’abatuye uyu mugabane bakoresha murandasi.  Bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2030, ¾ by’abatuye Afurika bazaba bakoresha murandasi.

Ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho rigendanwa(mobile technology) ryahaye akazi abantu miliyoni 1.7.

Ibi  byinjirije ibihugu by’Afurika miliyari $ 144, ni ukuvuga 8.5% by’umusaruro mbumbe wose w’uyu mugabane.

Ibihugu bimwe by’Afurika byungukiye cyane kuri murandasi kurusha ibindi.

Kenya iri mu bihugu by’Afurika bifite abantu bahererekanya amafaranga bakoresheje telefoni kurusha ibindi kandi ibi byayinjirije agafaranga kagaragara.

 Si Kenya gusa kuko iyo urebye no mu bindi bihugu by’Afurika, usanga guhererekanya amafaranga mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga byarazamuye umusaruro mbumbe w’Afurika k’uburyo  Afurika yihariye hafi ½ cy’amafaranga yose ku isi  yohererezwa hakoreshejwe Mobile Money.

Sierra Leone, kimwe mu bihugu bikennye kurusha ibindi ku isi, iherutse gutangiza ikigo cy’ubumenyi, guhanga udushya (Directorate of Science, Innovation and Technology (DST).

Utu tudege dufasha mu kugeza amaraso hirya no hino mu Rwanda ariko dukorera no muri Ghana

Kigamije gufasha abaturage kongera uburyo bwo guhererekanya amafaranga mu ikoranabuhanga hagamijwe kuziba ibyuho ruswa yari isanzwe icamo.

Murandasi ifite inzitizi…

Kuba murandasi iri ahantu ni ikintu kimwe kiza ariko kuba itagera kuri benshi ihendutse nabyo ni ikintu kintu kibi.

Kubera ko kugira ngo igere kuri benshi kandi ihendutse bisaba ko iba ari nyinshi, hari ahantu henshi muri Afurika itaragera cyangwa n’aho yageze ikaba ihenze.

Ahenshi ni mu cyaro.

Muri Senegal uzasanga ahenshi bakoresha  igisekuru cya gatatu cya murandasi(3G, Third Generation) kandi mu cyaro no mu mijyi mito, iriya murandasi ihagera igenda gacye.

Ibihugu by’Afurika bitazashobora kugendana n’umuvuduko w’iterambere rya murandasi bizasigara inyuma mu iterambere, binanirwe kubyaza umusaruro amahirwe gukoresha murandasi igezweho bitanga.

Abahanga kandi baburira abashinzwe umutekano muri Afurika ko niba badatangiye gushyiraho uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga bwo gukoma mu nkokora imigambi y’abagizi ba nabi bakoresha ikoranabuhanga, izahura n’ibibazo mu myaka 10 cyangwa 20 iri imbere.

Urugero rutangwa kuri iyi ngingo ni uko ibihugu bine bya mbere muri Afurika birusha ibindi murandasi iri hejuru(ni ukuvuga Algérie, Maroc, Kenya, na Nigeria) biri mu bihugu 10 ku isi byibasirwa n’udutero tw’abakoresha ikoranabuhanga.

Ikindi gitera impungenge ni uko ibihugu by’Afurika bikoresha murandasi biyihabwa n’ibigo bikomeye biba mu bihugu bikize. Ibi nabyo bifite ikiguzi kandi birumvikana ko abanyafurika baba badafite uruhare mu kugena iyo bakoresha n’uburyo bayikoresha kuko iba icungwa n’ibigo biyibiha.

Kugeza ubu hari ikoranabuhanga ry’amoko abiri iri kwaduka mu isi kandi rikataje, iryo ni iryo bita Artificial Intelligence no gukoresha ‘drones.’

Ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi kitwa Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, kivuga ko hari ibihugu by’Afurika  15 byatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga rya Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial intelligence ni uburyo murandasi yifashishwa mu gutuma ibyuma runaka bikora akazi gasanzwe bakorwa n’abantu, bikagakora kose cyangwa bigakora igice runaka cyako mu rwego rwo kugabanya imvune ye muntu.

Ririya koranabuhanga kandi rifasha abashinzwe umutekano mu gutahura ibikorwa by’abagizi ba nabi cyangwa kubahiga igihe babikoze bakabacika.

Muri 2019 iri koranabuhanga ryafashije abashinzwe umutekano muri Kenya mu guhiga abarwanyi ba Al Shabaab bari bagabye igitero kuri imwe mu nyubako z’ubucuruzi ziri i Nairobi.

Ikoranabuhanga rya Artificial Intelligence niryo rifasha u Rwanda mu gukoresha twa tudege dutwarwa n’abapilote bari kure yatwo mu kugeza amaraso iyo bigwa.

Iri koranabuhanga kandi niryo Nigeria ikoresha mu ndege zo drones za gisirikare zitwarwa n’abapilote batazirimo mu rwego rwo guhiga no guce intege abakora iterabwoba.

Izi ndege nizo zakoze kandi zigikora akazi muri Libya mu rugamba ruhamaze igihe ruhuje ibihugu bitandukanye bihafite inyungu z’ubukungu cyane cyane kurusha iza politiki.

Ikoreshwa neza rya ririya koranabuhanga rizafasha ibihugu by’ Afurika kwirindira umutekano kandi  bidahenzwe.

Umuburo uhabwa za Guverinoma ariko ni uw’uko gukoresha ririya koranabuhanga mu nyungu zidafitiye akamaro abaturage muri rusange, bizagira ingaruka zo kurushaho guhungabanya umutekano kuko hazavuka abagizi ba nabi biyemeje gukoma mu nkokora ririya koranabuhanga.

Ikoranabuhanga ryafashije mu guhangana na COVID-19

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe ubuzima rivuga ko ubwo COVID-19 yadukaga mu isi no muri Afurika by’umwihariko, hatangiye umuhati mu ikoranabuhanga wo guhangana n’ingaruka zacyo.

Udushya twahanzwe mu rwego rw’ikoranabuhanga, 13% twari utwo gusubiza ibibazo COVID-19 yateje kandi twose twahangiwe muri Afurika.

Muri Ghana bahanze application yo kumenya umuntu wanduye, abaturage bahimba ibyuma bikoresha imirasire y’izuba mu gutanga amashanyarazi akenewe kugira ngo afashe ibyuma bikora umuti wica udukoko bita hand sanitizers.

Muri Tunisia, Minisiteri y’ubuzima yatangije uburyo bwo gukoresha robots mu gucunga uko abaturage bubahiriza Guma mu rugo.

Robot zaherekezaga abantu runaka mu kazi kabo zikabibutsa kugura itabi cyanga ikndi gicuruzwa vuba bagasubira mu rugo.

Mu Rwanda naho hashyizwe za robots ku bibuga by’indege zifasha mu gutuhura abanduye COVID-19 bitabaye ngombwa ko basuzumwa n’abantu.

Ikoranabuhanga muri murandasi ariko rijya rikomwa mu nkokora n’inyungu z’abanyapolitiki baba bashaka kwigiza nkana ku batavuga rumwe nabo.

Iyi robot yashyizwe ku kibuga cy’indege i Kanombe ngo icunge uko abantu birinda COVID-19

Urugero ruheruka ni uburyo Guverinoma ya Uganda yakuyeho murandasi kugira ngo itifashishwa n’abari bashyigikiye umunyapolitiki utavuga rumwe na Leta Bwana Robert Kyagulanyi Ssentamu uzwi nka Bobi Wine.

U Rwanda, Kenya, Mauritius… ibihugu bihagaze neza mu ikoranabuhanga…

Ikigo  mpuzamahanga mu itunamaho(The International Telecommunication’s Union) giherutse gutangaza ko Mauritius, u Rwanda na Kenya ari byo bihugu by’Afurika byonyine biri ku rutonde rw’ibihugu 50 ku isi bifite uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga bwo gukumira ibyahungabanya itumanaho mu ikoranabuhanga.

Urutonde rw’ibi bihugu ruri kiswe Global Cybersecurity Commitment Index.  

Mu magambo make, murandasi igomba kungererwa imbaraga muri Afurika ariko ikaza ihendutse, igera kuri benshi kandi itekanye.

Afurika iratera imbere mu ikoranabuhanga ariko ejo hazaza haryo ni aho kwitonderwa.

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